This chapter deals with the theoretical basic of translation procedures

This chapter deals with the theoretical basic of translation procedures, translation methods, translation and biographies of the authors.

2.1 What is Translation?
Translation is the communication of meaning from one language (the source) to another language (the target). Translation refers to written information, whereas interpretation refers to a spoken information. According to Newmark (1988), he states that translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text.
When it comes to talking about translation, Newmark is the person that must mention. He divides translation into two: semantic translation and communicative translation. Semantic translation is more close to the source language, whereas communicative translation is more close to the target language. He believes that the translation theory’s main concerns to determine appropriate translation methods for all types and text categories. According to Newmark, everything is translatable up to a point, but there are often enormous difficulties.
The goal of translation is to establish a relationship of equivalence between the source and the target text, while considering the context, the rule of grammar of the source language, its writing forms, its idioms and so on. With the help of the digital technology, it allows us to present the interpretation of texts in the most comprehensive way, to create a more total understanding of a work and to establish a continuous interaction with the work.

Translation methods relate to what happens to texts.
There are two scopes in translation methods: Methods close to SL and Methods close to TL. There are all together 8 methods in numbers and 4 methods are close to SL and 4 methods are close to TL.
They are – (1) Word-for-word translation, (2) Literal translation, (3) Faithful translation, (4) Faithful translation (5) Adaptation, (6) Free translation, (7) Idiomatic translation and (8) Communicative translation.
Methods close to SL
1. Word-for-word translation: in which the SL word order is preserved and the words translated singly by their most common meanings, out of context.
2. Literal translation: in which the SL grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest TL equivalents, but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context.
3. Faithful translation: it attempts to produce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures.
4. Semantic translation: which differs from ‘faithful translation’ only in as far as it must take more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text.
Methods close to TL
1. Adaptation: which is the freest form of translation, and is used mainly for plays (comedies) and poetry; the themes, characters, plots are usually preserved, the SL culture is converted to the TL culture and the text is rewritten.
2. Free translation: it produces the TL text without the style, form, or content of the original.
3. Idiomatic translation: it reproduces the ‘message’ of the original but tends to distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and idioms where these do not exist in the original.
4. Communicative translation: it attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership (1988b: 45-47)
Newmark (1991:10-12) writes of a continuum existing between “semantic” and “communicative” translation. Any translation can be “more, or less semantic—more, or less, communicative—even a particular section or sentence can be treated more communicatively or less semantically.

2.3 Translation procedures
Translation procedures are used for sentences as well as the smaller units of language. According to Vinay and Darbelnet (1976 in Monday, 2001), there are seven translation procedures: literal translation, borrowing, transposition, adaptation, modulation, calque and equivalence. Moreover, Peter Newmark (1988:81-91) classified the translation procedures into nineteen. Newmark’s procedures are very useful and reliable for the literary translators as the procedures are comprehensive and show the losses and gains in translation.
Translation procedures of Newmark are as follow:

Literal Translation
When grammatical constructions in source language are converted to their nearest target language equivalents but the lexical words are translated solely out of context, the procedure is called literal. It ranges from one word to one word, group to group, clause to clause or sentence to sentence. It is applied when the term of source language is transparent or semantically motivated and is standardized. For example, the word “frog” is translated as “???” in the TL.

Transference is the process of transferring a SL word to a TL text as a translation procedure. It involves transliteration, which relates to the conversion of different alphabets. The following are normally transferred: topographical and geographical names, names of all living and dead people names of newspapers and periodicals, titles of untranslated literary works, plays and films, private companies name and name of public or nationalized institutions, addresses, street names, etc. Hence,this procedure is applied when there is no equivalent vocabularies of TL to translate.

Naturalization adapts the SL word first to the normal pronunciation, then to the normal morphology(word-forms) of the TL and this procedure succeeds transference. For instance, the term “computer” is translated on the TL as “?????????”.

Cultural Equivalent
Cultural Equivalent is translating appropriately when a SL cultural word is translated by a TL cultural one. This procedure aims to supplement another translation procedure in a couplet. For example, the word ” the banyan tree” is translated in the TL as “????????”.

Functional Equivalent
Functional Equivalent is commonly used in cultural terms. It needs the use of cultural-free word, occasionally with a new specific word. As this procedure is a cultural componential analysis, it is the most accurate way of translating i.e. decentralizing a cultural word. A similar procedure is used when there is lack of technical word of TL. This procedure occupies the
middle, the universal area between the SL culture or language and TL culture or language.

Descriptive Equivalent
This procedure mainly focuses on descripting the cultural words and then, description has to be weighed against function in translating.

Synonymy is a near TL equivalent to a SL word in a context, when an exact equivalent may or may not exist. It is used for a SL term due to lack of clear one-to-one equivalent and unimportant word such as adverbs or adjectives of quality in the text. A synonym can only fit where it is impossible for literal translation and because the word is not quite unimportant for componential analysis.

Shifts or Transpositions
A shift or transposition is a translation procedure involving a change in the grammar from SL to TL. It can be changing from singular to plural or from SL verb to TL word or from an SL noun group to a TL noun or from complex sentence to a simple sentence.

Modulation occurs when translator reproduces the message of the original text in the TL text in conformity with the current norms of the TL, since the SL and the TL may appear dissimilar in the terms of perspective. It is also a variation through a change of viewpoint, of perspective and of though. It can be a change in the part for a whole, abstract for concrete, active for passive, change of symbols. Modulation is used when the TL rejects literal translation.

Recognized translation
Recognized translation uses the official or the generally accepted translation of any institutional term.

Compensation is said to occur when loss of meaning, sound-effect, metaphor or pragmatic effect in one part of a sentence is compensated in another par.

Componential Analysis
According to Newmark (1988b), componential analysis is first looking at the meaning resemblances between source language and target language word and later distinguishing their sense of components into one -to-two, three, or-four translations.

Reduction or Expansion
In translations, translators usually face with unclear texts. When they cut the overlapping meanings in their translations, ‘reduction’ is used in that situation. On the other hand, if they add some words to have more complete meanings, they apply the translation procedure of ‘expansion’.

Newmark defines that when a translation describes detail explanations for the incomplete meanings of the text, it is called ‘paraphrasing’.
Two contrasting procedures which are used in translating a word (or) phrase (or) clause are called ‘couplets’.

Notes, Additions, Glosses
All pieces of extra information that a translator add are said to be ‘notes, additions, glosses’.
‘Additions’ are expressed within the text. Some pieces of information written at the bottom of the page are called ‘notes’. Then ‘glosses’ can be seen at the end of the chapter or at the end of the books.


2.4.1 Biography of Min Thu Wun
Min Thu Wun was a Poet writer and scholar who helped launch a new age literary movement called Khit-San Sar Pay (Modern Literature). He was born on 10th February 1909 as Maung Wun at Kungyangon, Hinthada District, Ayeyarwaddy division. He is the father of U Htin Kyaw, the former president of Myanmar from 2016 to 2018. He started writing poems at the age of 20 for Rangoon College (later Yangon University) Magazine. It was in university that he along with the other studends of professor Pe Maung Tin –Theippan Maung Wa and Zawgyi, pioneered the Khit San style of short stories and poems published in the university magazine. He received his master’s degree in Myanmar literature in 1935. He went to study at Oxford University and achieved a bachelor’s degree in literature in 1939. He died on 15th August 2004 at 95 years old.

2.4.2 Biography of Thagyi Gazette U Khin Maung
U Khin Maung was born in 1892 in Gyan Khin, Ayeyarwaddy Division. Thagyi gazette U Khin Maung was named after working as an Editor of Thagyi gazette Magazine for many years. He got a degree from Yangon College in 1916 and started working as a teacher in Thatong, Mon State. He had worked as an editor in Thuriya Magazine, and Burma Observer Magazine. He used the pen name, Taw Thar and wrote some novels in English newspapers. Even the foreigners like his articles due to his good writing in English. He worked for the government after Myanmar got independence and was honored “the Wunna Kyaw Htin Degree”. He died on 21st November in 1952 at the age of 60.