SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING E-TOLL A project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of B

SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
E-TOLL
A project submitted
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
B.Tech in Electrical and Electronics Engineering
By
HARSHA VARDHAN (15BEE1193)
SHANKAR (15BEE1202)
SHAISHAV (15BEE1065)
ZAID ALAM (15BEE1138)
CHANDRA MOHAN (15BEE1224)
YASHWANTH (15BEE1169)
Course Instructor
Dr. GUNA BALAN
Associate Professor
NOV 2018
UNDERTAKING
This is to declare that the project entitled “E-TOLL” is an original work done by undersigned, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree “B. Tech in Electrical and Electronics Engineering” at School of Electrical Engineering, VIT Chennai.

All the analysis, design and system development have been accomplished by the undersigned. Moreover, this project has not been submitted to any other college or university.

HARSHA VARDHAN (15BEE1193)
SHANKAR (15BEE1202)
SHAISHAV (15BEE1065)
ZAID ALAM (15BEE1138)
CHANDRA MOHAN (15BEE1224)
YASHWANTH (15BEE1169)
ABSTRACT
Today, due to the increase in the vehicles, there is a lot of gathering of the traffic at the toll booths. The main reason for this traffic at the toll booths is due to the manual working of the toll tax collection at the booths. Each vehicle on an average need to stop at the tool booth for about a minute for the payment of the toll tax. In order to decrease this traffic, we decided to work on the construction of a project which reduces the manual work and hence increases the vehicle speed passing by the toll booth. Also, we decided to develop a project which allows the vehicles just to pass through the booth without the need to stop. This will increase the speed of
the passing by vehicles allowing them to pass through the booth without stopping and also will reduce the manual work and as a result reducing the traffic gathering at the toll collecting
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction
1.1What is Toll Station?
2. Components
2.1 Hard ware Components
2.1.1. Introduction to RFID
2.1.2. What is RFID?
2.1.3. Applications of RFID
2.1.4. Working of GSM Module
2.2 Software components
2.2.1. Arduino studio Overview
2.2.2. Thingspeak3. Abbreviations and Acronyms
4. Contents
4.1 RFID Tag
4.2 RFID Receiver
4.3 PC
4.4 Gate Control
4.5 Methodology
5.Figures
6.Advantages and Limitations of Project
7. Conclusion
8. Team Members Contribution
9.References
Introduction Our life is changing very fast and the role of automation in our day to day life is increasing at a very fast rate. This is the motive behind our project i.e. “Automation”. Day by day the number of vehicles passing over the road is increasing due to which the road condition is decaying rapidly.

In today’s era of technology, where machines are being extensively used in
all the fields we are trying to emulate concept, which will be of great use in public transport systems. Today a person has to travel long distances into vastly unknown territories for job, business, or even for tourism. As the vehicles are increasing and roads are falling short, nowadays we see frequently traffic jams or long queues at the toll stations waiting for paying the toll. Paying the toll every-time through cash or checking the pass takes a lot of time. And today Time is more precious than money. Therefore, our project is aimed at reducing time consumed for manual transactions and human effort.

1.1 What is a Toll Station?
Two variations of toll roads exist, barrier (mainline) toll plazas and
entry/exit tolls. On a mainline toll system, all vehicles stop at various locations along the highway to pay a toll. While this may save money from the lack of need to construct tolls at every exit, it can cause lots of traffic congestion, and drivers could evade tolls by going through them as the exits do not have gates. With entry/exit tolls, vehicles collect a ticket when entering the highway, which displays the fares it will pay when it exits, increasing in cost for distance travelled. Upon exit, the driver will pay the amount listed for the given exit. Should the ticket indicate a traveling violation or be lost, the driver would typically pay the maximum amount possible for traveling on that highway. Modern toll roads often use a combustion of the two, with various entry and exit tolls supplemented by occasional mainline tolls.

2.COMPONENTS
2.1 HARDWARE:
RFID READER
RFID TAG
GSM MODULE
WeMo’s D1 R2 Wi-Fi development Board
ROBO CARS
2.2 SOFTWARE:
ANDROID STUDIO
THINKSPEAK
2.1.1 INTRODUCTION TO RFID
RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) means providing electronic identity to any object.
Electronic information about the object is stored in RFID chip embedded or attached to the object.
It’s an area of automation which has quickly been gaining momentum in recent years and is now being a radical means of enhancing data handling processes, complementary in many ways to other data capturing technologies such as bar-coding.
A range of devices and associated systems are available to satisfy even broader range of applications which will change the course of industry particularly in the supply-chain area.
2.1.2 APPLICATIONS OF RFID TAG:
Customized RFID solutions are now available for all applications.

Prisoners in certain ways are tagged to prevent violent behavior and possibly their escape.

Petrol stations across America use tracking systems as payment systems for fuel.

At airport tagged baggage can be easily located even if they are at few meters away from the wrong conveyer belt.

In Mumbai Marathon for the first time RFID tags were used in a marathon in Asia to track each competitor and how fast they were running.

2.1.3 GSM MODULE WORKING
GSM MODEM can perform the following operations:
1. Receive, send or delete SMS messages in a SIM.

2. Read, add, search phonebook entries of the SIM.

3. Make, Receive, or reject a voice call.

The MODEM needs AT commands, for interacting with processor or controller, which are communicated through serial communication. These commands are sent by the controller/processor. The MODEM sends back a result after it receives a command. Different AT commands supported by the MODEM can be sent by the processor/controller/computer to interact with the GSM cellular network.

SOFTWARE SECTION:
2.2.1 ANDROID STUDIO OVERVIEW:
Android Studio is the official integrated development environment (IDE) for Google’s Android operating system, built on JetBrains’ IntelliJ IDEA software and designed specifically for Android development. It is available for download on Windows, macOS and Linux based operating systems. It is a replacement for the Eclipse Android Development Tools (ADT) as primary IDE for native Android application development.

Android Studio offers:
Flexible Gradle-based build system.

Build variants and multiple apk file generation.

Code templates to help you build common app features.

Rich layout editor with support for drag and drop theme editing.

lint tools to catch performance, usability, version compatibility, and other problems.

ProGuard and app-signing capabilities.

Built-in support for Google Cloud Platform, making it easy to integrate Google Cloud Messaging and App Engine.

2.2.2 THINGSPEAK
ThingSpeak is a platform providing various services exclusively targeted for building IoT applications. It offers the capabilities of real-time data collection, visualizing the collected data in the form of charts, ability to create plugins and apps for collaborating with web services, social network and other APIs. We will consider each of these features in detail below.

The core element of ThingSpeak is a ‘ThingSpeak Channel’. A channel stores the data that we send to ThingSpeak and comprises of the below elements:
8 fields for storing data of any type – These can be used to store the data from a sensor or from an embedded device.

3 location fields – Can be used to store the latitude, longitude and the elevation. These are very useful for tracking a moving device.

1 status field – A short message to describe the data stored in the channel.

To use ThingSpeak, we need to signup and create a channel. Once we have a channel, we can send the data, allow ThingSpeak to process it and retrieve the same. Let us start exploring ThingSpeak by signing up and setting up a channel.

Abbreviations and Acronyms 1.RFID stands for “Radio Frequency Identification “.

2.GSM stands for “Global System for Mobile”
4. ContentsIn our project, we have a vehicle equipped with RFID tag and computer connected to Transceiver positioned at the Toll station. Whenever the vehicle enters the coverage area of transceiver, it decodes the code assigned to that particular tag. After receiving the code. it is forwarded to the computer situated at the Toll station. The computer then recognizes the code and automatically access the database and if the vehicle has its valid prepaid account at the toll station, the appropriate toll is deducted from that account and the gate is opened to allow the vehicle to pass. And if the vehicle doesn’t have a valid prepaid account or it is not a daily traveler, it will have to pass through a manual check post which will be in another lane. And all the data will be sent to the E-TOLL app.

The Model diagram of our project’s working model is shown in figure :1. Before preparing the Hardware ; Software we had designed the model diagram of working model of our project. It can also be called as Blueprint of our project. It shows all basic parts required to run our system. And these basic parts will be explained further in detail.

4.1. RFID TAG (On Vehicle):
This unit has its unique code depending on the type of vehicle
4.2 RFID RECEIVER:
It consists of transmitter ; receiver used to detect the presence of RFID tag in its range. After the presence of RFID tag is detected the corresponding signal is given to the computer.

4.3 PC:
PC is placed at a distance from the gate. It does the task of detecting the signal given by receiver and deducting corresponding amount from the respective account. After deducting amount from the respective account, it gives the signal to open the gate. After detecting that vehicle has passed it gives the signal to close the gate.

4.4 GATE CONTROL:
It does the task of opening or closing the gate when it receives the corresponding signal from the computer.

4.5 Methodology
The flowchart of our project is shown in figure 4. Here as soon as the vehicle enters the toll booth post, the reader attached at the toll booth tries to catch the signals from the RFID reader that is attached along with the vehicle. As soon as reader receives the signal from the RFID tag that is attached with the vehicle, it sends the signal information to the pc that it is attached to. The pc gathers the information of the vehicle from its database and based on the pre-stored information it detects the vehicle, the size of the vehicle.

Based on this data, the tax for the vehicle is calculated and thus the same amount is deducted from the users account. If the users account has the sufficient balance, then it is deducted, and the barrier is lifted thus allowing the vehicle to pass through. Also, the user receives and e-mail for the transaction.

If the account doesn’t have the sufficient balance, then the pc blinks the message for the insufficient balance thus asking the person at the toll gate to collect it manually. Once the tax is collected manually the barrier is lifted and the user can pass through. Here also an SMS is sent to the user about his transaction and alerting him to refill the account.

All the travel data is stored in cloud and transaction data will be viewed in the app.

Codes:
WIFI MODULE
#include “ThingSpeak.h”
#include <SPI.h>
#include <SoftwareSerial.h>
#include “MFRC522.h”
#define RST_PIN 3 // RST-PIN für RC522 – RFID – SPI – Modul GPIO5
#define SS_PIN 4 // SDA-PIN für RC522 – RFID – SPI – Modul GPIO4
MFRC522 mfrc522(SS_PIN, RST_PIN); // Create MFRC522 instance
SoftwareSerial SIM900(0,1);//Rx,Txint voltage;
#define USE_WIFI101_SHIELD
#if !defined(USE_WIFI101_SHIELD) && !defined(USE_ETHERNET_SHIELD) && !defined(ARDUINO_SAMD_MKR1000) && !defined(ARDUINO_AVR_YUN) && !defined(ARDUINO_ARCH_ESP8266) && !defined(ARDUINO_ARCH_ESP32)
#error “Uncomment the #define for either USE_WIFI101_SHIELD or USE_ETHERNET_SHIELD”
#endif
#if defined(ARDUINO_AVR_YUN)
#include “YunClient.h”
YunClient client;
#else
#if defined(USE_WIFI101_SHIELD) || defined(ARDUINO_SAMD_MKR1000) || defined(ARDUINO_ARCH_ESP8266) || defined(ARDUINO_ARCH_ESP32)
// Use WiFi #ifdef ARDUINO_ARCH_ESP8266
#include <ESP8266WiFi.h>
#elif defined(ARDUINO_ARCH_ESP32)
#include <WiFi.h>
#else
#include <SPI.h>
#include <WiFi101.h>
#endif
char ssid = “Test”; // your network SSID (name)
char pass = “12345678”; // your network password
int status = WL_IDLE_STATUS;
WiFiClient client;
#elif defined(USE_ETHERNET_SHIELD)
// Use wired ethernet shield
#include <SPI.h>
#include <Ethernet.h>
byte mac = { 0xDE, 0xAD, 0xBE, 0xEF, 0xFE, 0xED};
EthernetClient client;
#endif
#endif
#ifdef ARDUINO_ARCH_AVR
// On Arduino: 0 – 1023 maps to 0 – 5 volts
#define VOLTAGE_MAX 5.0
#define VOLTAGE_MAXCOUNTS 1023.0
#elif ARDUINO_SAMD_MKR1000
// On MKR1000: 0 – 1023 maps to 0 – 3.3 volts
#define VOLTAGE_MAX 3.3
#define VOLTAGE_MAXCOUNTS 1023.0
#elif ARDUINO_SAM_DUE
// On Due: 0 – 1023 maps to 0 – 3.3 volts
#define VOLTAGE_MAX 3.3
#define VOLTAGE_MAXCOUNTS 1023.0
#elif ARDUINO_ARCH_ESP8266
// On ESP8266: 0 – 1023 maps to 0 – 1 volts
#define VOLTAGE_MAX 1.0
#define VOLTAGE_MAXCOUNTS 1023.0
#elif ARDUINO_ARCH_ESP32
// On ESP32: 0 – 4096 maps to 0 – 1 volts
#define VOLTAGE_MAX 1.0
#define VOLTAGE_MAXCOUNTS 4095.0
#endif
unsigned long myChannelNumber =403373;
const char * myWriteAPIKey = “AKZI35SU2EHY7AZ2”;
void setup() {
Serial.begin(115200); // Initialize serial communications
SPI.begin(); // Init SPI bus
SIM900.begin(19200);
mfrc522.PCD_Init(); // Init MFRC522

#ifdef ARDUINO_AVR_YUN
Bridge.begin();
#else
#if defined(ARDUINO_ARCH_ESP8266) || defined(USE_WIFI101_SHIELD) || defined(ARDUINO_SAMD_MKR1000) || defined(ARDUINO_ARCH_ESP32)
WiFi.begin(ssid, pass);
#else
Ethernet.begin(mac);
#endif
#endif
ThingSpeak.begin(client);
}
void loop() {
if ( ! mfrc522.PICC_IsNewCardPresent()) {
delay(50);
return;
}
if ( ! mfrc522.PICC_ReadCardSerial()) {
delay(50);
return;
}
// Serial.print(F(“Card UID:”));
dump_byte_array(mfrc522.uid.uidByte, mfrc522.uid.size);
ThingSpeak.writeField(myChannelNumber, 2, voltage, myWriteAPIKey);
delay(20000); // ThingSpeak will only accept updates every 15 seconds.

}
void dump_byte_array(byte *buffer, byte bufferSize){
for (byte i = 0; i < bufferSize; i++) {
// Serial.print(bufferi < 0x10 ? ” 0″ : ” “);
Serial.print(bufferi);
}
Serial.print(” “);
//Serial.print(buffer0);
if(buffer0==5)
{
voltage=1;
}
if(buffer0==147){
voltage=2;
}
}

SMS CODE:
#include <SoftwareSerial.h>
SoftwareSerial SIM900(7, 8);//Rx,TxString no = “+918056053063″;
String message = ” u entered tollgate range!”;
void setup() {
SIM900.begin(19200);
// Serial.print(115200);
delay(20000);
}
void sendSMS(String number, String mess) {
SIM900.print(“AT+CMGF=1
“);
delay(100);
SIM900.println(“AT + CMGS = “” + number + “””);
delay(100);
SIM900.println(mess);
delay(100);
SIM900.println((char)26);
delay(100);
SIM900.println();
delay(5000);
}
void loop() {
sendSMS(no, message);
do {} while (1);
}
5.Figures
Figure 1: Proposed Model

Figure 2: Block Diagram

Figure 3: Hardware connections

Figure 4: Flow Chart

Figure 5: Working model of Hardware

Figure 6: Data uploaded to Cloud

Figure 7: E Toll App
6.Conclusion Times are changing and even this Manual Technique for Taxation at toll station has to change and seeing a change in mind set of every individual this technology would also be taken whole heartedly. And we would see that paying Toll at the Toll station won’t be that time consuming and much accurate and preferred across every nook and corner of the globe wherever there would be a toll station. And as described above about the merits of this Toll station we don’t think that its not that far enough when we would see this technology being used in India and in terms benefiting the whole society as well as the company whose is involved in Toll taxation.

8.References1. Sachin Bhosale,Dnyaneshwar Natha Wavhal. “Automated Toll Plaza System using RFID” IJSETR, Vol 2, Issue 1, Jan 2013.
2. Janani SP, Meena S, Automatised Toll Gate System Using Passive RFID and GSM Technology, Vol. 5. Issue ECIA2012-3 Journal of Computer Applications, February 10,2012.
3. Asif Ali Laghari, M. Sulleman Memon and Agha Sheraz Pathan, “RFID Based Toll Deduction System,”I.J. Information Technology and Computer Science, 2012, 4, 40-46
4. Aniruddha Kumawat, Kshitija Chandramore, “Automation Toll Collection System Using RFID”, Vol. 2, Issue 2, April-June 2014