INTRODUCTION Exercise Fitness Testing is the focus within this report the benefits from screen testing and fitness assessments can identify potential risks that the client may not be aware of

INTRODUCTION
Exercise Fitness Testing is the focus within this report the benefits from screen testing and fitness assessments can identify potential risks that the client may not be aware of. It provides valuable information of the general history present, health medical history and lifestyle issues. It identifies conditions where medical clearances may be required. Good health, wellness, fitness and healthy lifestyles are important for all people to look feel good and be in better shape. For all of these aspects to tie in together there needs to first be some baseline fitness to work with which is your current physical fitness level. This is the start, a point of reference to help measure progress as each individual works towards their fitness goals. The reason fitness testing plays such an important role is that once the data is collected a strategy can be designed to suit the individual’s needs and requirements to look good and feel healthy. If an individual continues without the proper guidance and help it can lead to other health issues and a decrease in performance for elite athletes. Garthe (2014)
“Over the years, I have come to look at physical fitness as the trunk of a tree that supports the many branches which represent all the activities that make life worth living, intellectual life, spiritual life occupation love life and social activities.” Thomas Kirk Cureton, Jr
Fitness programs whatever is given to the individual needs to be sustainable. New individuals being introduced to fitness should only work out 30 min at a time in the beginning, people can comprehend this time they can grasp it. The workout needs to be efficient you have to see results the only thing that is going to get someone who doesn’t like to work out to continue to work out is success this is about quality of life. The purpose is not to turn the everyday person into an athlete or an Olympian it is to help them maintain or improve quality of life. Fitness testing can happen at any time that best suits the individual it could be preseason preparation or during competition it is even for the everyday individual who has concerns with their fitness level at present then once activity analysis is complete another fitness test should be performed as a minimum to ensure specificity. The results of pretesting should provide a blueprint for the training program. Pre training program fitness testing aims to achieve success.

These specific fitness tests can be defined as VO2, resting metabolic rate and body fat. VO2 is how much oxygen they are breathing in mill in one minute it has a direct correlation to the cardiovascular fitness level. Resting metabolic rate is how efficient an individual burns kilojoules when they are doing nothing. A high percentage of kilojoules are burned when you are sedentary so this is an important number to record. Body fat is the most important number in fitness these numbers shape your design of a program. After physical assessments are done an assessor trainer or coach can teach the individual about healthy practices how to work out and what habits need to be adjusted for best results.

“Everyone knows the ingredients but few know the recipe” Lydiard
The benefits from screen testing and fitness assessments this process can identify potential risks that the client may not be aware of. It provides valuable information of the general history present, health medical history and lifestyle issues it identifies conditions where medical clearances may be required.
“For most people, regular exercise reduces the risk of heart disease by about one half compared to those who are physically inactive” Nieman (2007)
Fitness test results enable participants to ascertain their capacity to perform certain tasks. The tests can indicate specific personal attributes that the participant and coach can use to help determine the types of events or playing position to which the player is best suited. A rugby player who scores highly in a test of aerobic power for example may be best suited to playing as a back the roles that involve covering greater distances in the game rather then a prop in the front of the scrum. Collecting the data from pre-training tests can allow the participant and coach to set bench marks for training. This data can also be referred to as baseline data. Collection of baseline data allows realistic and specific goals to be set and accurate evaluation to occur. This can be done at any individual’s level or a group level for team sports.

Testing during training can help coaches evaluate how the participants and training programs are going. The number of times testing is undertaken will depend on the length of the program.
A fitness test is known as a fitness assessment it is comprised of a series of exercises that help evaluate your overall health and physical status. There is a wide range of standard tests used either for medical purposes and others of which establish whether you are qualified to participate in armed forces like the police or army combat.

These testing’s can help those who need to be assessed for purposes like the armed forces these testing’s can identify health risks. Nieman suggests that relative contraindications can be superseded if benefits outweigh risks of exercise.

“Treatment of obesity has proven to be one of the greatest challenges facing Health Professionals”. Nieman (2007)
For general health and fitness purposes the tests are considered the starting point for designing an appropriate exercise program. They’re meant to ensure individuals that you won’t be at risk of harm and provide the trainer with the insight needed to establish clear and effective fitness goals. Identifying weaknesses and strengths. However for those who are at risk a serious heart disease to begin with shouldn’t participate in physical fitness unless they have a clearance from a doctor because it could trigger fatal heart attacks. Nieman (2007)
Whether you are a professional athlete or a student some of the testing procedures are used by athletes who are involved with high performance sport. Health and wellness offers you the variety of fitness assessments these assessments take place in a fully equipped gym where you can be assured of a quality private and personalized atmosphere. A thorough assessment of body composition which is the proportions of fat, muscle and bone making up the body usually expressed as percent of body fat.

“Obesity is associated with many diseases or disorders and represents an important health problem. Obese individuals in general have lower cardiovascular fitness then leaner people. Results suggest that increased fitness could reduce the risks associated with obesity. Hubert (1983)
Body fat percentage measures how much of your body weight is muscle versus fat your lean to fat ratio is an important metric in determining if you have a healthy body composition.
The body mass is subdivided into two or more components. The two component model divides the body mass into fat and fat-free mass. The fat mass contains all extractable lipids, and the fat free mass includes water, protein, and mineral components. Nieman (2007)
During the fitness assessment each individual will be assessed on flexibility how supple the client is for their age and if there is any inconsistences between the right and the left side of the body. A strength measurement is taken of how strong you are and how balanced your body is similar to the flexibility assessment this is where identification of left or right sides and differences can be seen. The height and weight measurements have been combined together to offer a more accurate percentage of body fat and status of a person.
Aerobic capacity is tested in many forms depending on the person age and fitness level. Aerobic exercise increase the heart rate and works the muscles raising breathing rate so when considering training starting with this type of exercise is good then moving to strength training but in order to correctly prescribe the right program there needs to be some testing to see where base fitness is sitting.

A healthy body composition is one that includes a lower percentage of body fat and a higher percentage of fat-free mass which includes muscle, bones and organs. Body composition is the measure to assess your health and fitness level. Often you will have body composition measured at the start of weight loss or fitness program and checked and monitored regularly
Athletes tend to have lower body fat, which may be beneficial for performance in sports such as running and cycling. An overall body assessment will see if the body is dehydrated or if the fluid in the body is in the right places. Testing will help give information of where you are where you need to be given your age and gender. Before starting a fitness program it is important to share your medical history with your trainer and to get the necessary approvals from your doctor to proceed
Once testing has been completed a program is prescribed the right specific program for the needs of the client. The proof lies in the retest after all the hard work has been done the client then will see the measure of their improvement. The tests are safe scientific and accurate
Exercise Protocol Testing can discover so many important tools for athletes striving to succeed and progress in their chosen field. There is VO2 max testing on a treadmill or cycle ergometer testing oxygen consumption blood lactate testing blood lactate concentration. Other methods can be done to monitor and control weight Body Composition, Body Mass Index, skinfolds measurements with a measuring caliper. The arm, waist, gluteal, calf, girth measurements only require a measuring tape as equipment for testing.

Depending on the Exercise Testing protocol it can help the athlete focus their training, track their training and progress more scientifically and accurately to achieve their potential. The athlete can then perform at their optimal level and achieve goals Body Composition is what our bodies are composed of muscle bone organs tissue and fat however the fat component can vary from person to person. This is the primary function of body composition. The percentage of stored fat in a body versus lean mass.

Astrand Treadmill test or Cycle Ergometer Submaximal exercise test assess cardiorespiratory fitness it is used to predict Vo2 max heart rate when the intensity increases so does the heart rate and then it can determine how well the muscles are using oxygen.
Along with the submaximal testing’s there is Flexibility Test Sit and Reach Test Sit UpTest Press Up Test Wall Test all of these testing’s can be done quickly and efficiently.

Figure 1 is an example of Endurance Cycling that supports cardiorespiratory fitness.

PURPOSE
Fitness tests identify an individual’s strengths and weakness in the major components of fitness that are important to a particular sport or activity. The information allows the design of a specific individual training program to be customized to maintain the strengths and improving weaknesses. The following study recognizes the fitness protocols used throughout the world for baseline fitness and sports performance. Fitness Testing is a way of predicting future performance and allowing the participant to know what level they can realistically aim.

METHOD
Study was performed as part of a Sports and Exercise class of five Southern Institute of Technology students from ages of 21-42 years the aim was to assess five students and do appropriate protocol testing for an evaluation. All students conducted a PWC Ergometer test with all testing successfully completed. The students who were selected to perform a range of physical assessments to evaluate overall health and wellbeing.
Method Subjects
The study on SIT students of 5 participants who were studying at Southern Institute of Technology four students from the Sports and Exercise department and one student from Bachelor of Massage during laboratory sessions included 3 males and 3 females. Each of the participants were required to complete a PWC Cycle ergometer test heart rate values and blood pressure values the 8 skinfold sites and 8 girth measurements bio electrical impedance test with BMI and waist to hip ratio tests. Each of the participants was required to complete a PWC-170 Cycle ergometer test which aimed at determining their aerobic fitness level. This assessment stands for your physical work capacity and the number represents the estimated working capacity at this heart rate level in beats per minute. Prior to undertaking the fitness tests each participant recorded had their gender,age,height and weight for analysis on the completion of tests. The data was then put into Anthro representing the mean + and standard deviations.

Testing Protocols
All individuals must have clear understanding of the testing process will help no matter what the purpose before any fitness tests are carried out it is important aspect of fitness and training. The test need to be reliable and valid it must be able to be replicated with consistency performing the same warm up to conducting the same sequence.

The fitness Component test are Aerobic power, Agility, Anaerobic Capacity, Body Composition and flexibility. The muscular components are endurance power strength and speed.

Aerobic Power Tests
Multistage fitness Test
Yo-yo test
Cooper 12 min run test
2.4 run test
1 mile walk test
VO2 max, astrand cycle ergometer test VO2 max treadmill test
Step Test anerobic capacity tests
Phosphate recovery test
30 sec wingate test
60 min push up test
30 secon sit up test
It is advisable that all participants not participate in heavy exercise or have had any stimulants or heavy means prior to testing. Participants were encouraged to be well hydrated and to wear comfortable clothing and footwear for the physical testing.

“Well no athlete respects a big fat coach who’s going to stand there and rest the watch on his stomach” Lydiard
Screening
The screening process Is the interview between trainer and client following this is a series of tests to help to determine the health physical fitness and risk factors of individuals there are a number of screening tests and measurements that trainers could use to assess the clients level of fitness. This is the starting point to designing an appropriate exercise program once the screening is complete the trainer can then commence with series of fitness tests. The trainer can then interpret the data and manage information that is sensitive professional and valid.

If the data comes back negatively then client would be advised to get a clearance from a doctor before commencing any exercise.

A comprehensive medical or health questionnaire should include a medical diagnoses previous physical examination findings history of symptoms recent illness hospitalization new medical diagnoses or surgical procedures orthopaedic problems medication use and drug allergies lifestyle habits exercise history work history and family history or disease. The medical clearance is a priority once all data is completed then the trainer can help the client meet there goals. Realistic measurable specific goals set dates for reassessment for evaluation that builds trust and confidence.

Consent
“By law any subject patient or client who is exposed to possible physical psychological or social injury must give informed consent prior to participation in a program.” Nieman(2007)
Provides particpants with sufficient details to make an informed decision they say they understand the risk and benefits based on your consent form.
Flexibility Measurement
Sit and reach test measure the flexibility of the lower back and hamstring muscles. The equipment needed is the sit and reach box or alternatively a ruler can be used and held between the feet this test involves sitting on the floor with legs out straight ahead. Both knees are held flat against the floor with hands on top of each other and palms facing down. There is to be no jerking movements and that the fingertips remain level and legs flat.

Somatypes
People are born with the inherited body type based on their skeletal frame and body composition. Most people are unique combinations of the three body types Ectomorph Mesomorph and Endomorph.

Ectomorph traits include hard to gain muscle slender frame narrow shoulders and hips narrow chest and abdomen small bone structure very fast metabolism
Mesomorph traits are usually medium build rectangular wedge body shape wide broad shoulders fairly lean with a hard body can gain muscle easily are usually strong muscled arms and legs.

Endomorph traits are usually short I height or stature difficult to lose body fat bulky physique round body can gain both fat and muscle easily with side shoulders and hips.

Soma types body types or somatype has a strong influence on total body weight. Nieman(2007)
Tape Measuring
When you go through any fitness program whether it be 6 weeks or onwards the body goes through some dramatic changes. Taking a thorough and accurate set of body measurements need to be taken. This encourages the individual to keep going with the workout and if they see results they will keep maintaining the workout. All that is needed is a tape measure. A body fat caliper. It is extremely important that you are consistent with the measurements so its standard measure in exact same place each time. Begin at the arms and work all the way down.

Biceps measure at the peak or if you don’t have a peak then measure from the shoulder to the center of the bicep.

Chest right across the nipples with arms down.

Waist is directly across the belly button this is the love handles.
Hip measurement include the widest part of the butt make sure legs are together and feet are touching.

Thighs measurement are taken halfway between the hip and the knee make sure that the weight is evenly distributed. Feet shoulder width apart it is also important to do both legs.

Calf measure at the peak of the calf.

Body fat calipers to the side of the belly button an inch down pinch as much fat as you can with the fingers then squeeze with calipers the line arrows up and read the number of mm then you can use the chart to track percentage..
Body Composition
Body Composition is what our bodies are composed of muscle bone organs tissue and fat however the fat component can vary from person to person. This is the primary function of body composition. The percentage of stored fat in a body versus lean mass.

“Body weight can be subdivided simply into two components: fat weight (the weight of fat tissue) and fat free weight (the weight of the remaining lean tissue”.Nieman (2007)
Nieman suggests that the optimal body fat levels for men is when the percentage of body fat is below 15% if men reach the 23% bracket they are considered to be obese. Women on the other hand if they have 23% or less it is considered optimal but if women reach 33% body fat they are considered obese.”Nieman (2007)
These tests are carried out for various reasons excess body fat has been linked to high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and certain forms of cancer. Brewer(2004)
For these reasons stated it is necessary to have tests done to be aware of body weight issues.

YMCA Test
For this particular test participants are required to cycle for multiple intervals of three minutes according to a guide which was based on HR. In order to ensure that the bike was at a comfortable height, height of the cycle can be adjusted so that the knee is slightly flexed at the bottom of the down stroke. The first workload on the ergometer was set at 25 watts (W) which the participant cycled for 3 minutes with their HR being recorded for the last 15 seconds of the 2nd and 3rd minutes. Are analyzed to determine the work rate (WR) category for the remainder fo the test, ensuring that the HR for this period differed by no more then 6. The test is concluded when the participant has at least two WR with corresponding steady state heart rates between 110bom and 85% HR Max. Nieman(2007)
Body Mass Index
Body mass index is an estimate of total body fat based on your height and weight. BMI is helpful for evaluating the degrees of obesity. This formula for body mass index is body weight (kg) divided by height (cm).

“These BMIs are widely used in large population studies because of their simplicity of measurement and calculation and their low cost”. Nieman (2007)
Body Mass Index does not account for body composition or fat distribution it can overestimate body fat in athletes or other with a muscular build or large body frame. BMI in the healthy range does not necessarily meant that you are fit and healthy.

Figure1:Auckland Weight Loss surgery
1 mile walk test
The test is a one mile walk test where you walk a mile around a track measured to the correct distance as fast as possible measure the total walking time and then take the heart rate just after finishing.

Skinfolds
A skinfold test is designed to get a clear measurement from your fat and from the muscle when measuring weight you actually want to know how much fat is in the weight begin measured. There are 8 measurements done in exactly the same spots each time collating a number of measurement s to use over time.
The skinfold thickness is measured from a squeeze of skin and fat tissue 2 inches apart making sure that there is a separation from the muscle to the fat and skin tissue. Basic skinfold calipers used nowadays are more efficient then the electrical methods and cheaper it is important to know what your body fat is.
Background information on testing protocols and the value of testing and the monitoring tools used – Relate existing knowledge to current research trends

Clips must be take while standing and on the RIGHT side of the client’s body.

Pinch between your forefinger and thumb. Pinch deep enough to separate the fat from the muscle (you are looking for a double-thick pinch of skin), but not so deep that you include the muscle. In reality, clipping to include muscle up is very difficult and often quite painful to the client.

Place the calipers 1 cm from your clip, midway between the crest and the base.

For each of the clip sites, 2 measurements and use the average if within 0.5 mm. Take the 2 measurements non-consecutively – run through all the sites and then return to the first. This allows the skin to return to normal between clipping measurements. In focus Wellness (2013)
The advantages for using this method is it is easy to use once the skill is mastered does not require much time its noninvasive and very inexpensive way of estimating percent of body fat. The disadvantages are there could be technical sources of error mostly concerned with subcutaneous fat under the skin. It may not be an ideal measurement for those who are obese and very lean.

1 Skinfold Test
The triceps skinfold site has been used most often in large population group studies. Nieman
(2007)
3 SkinfoldTest
Percent Body fat =( sum of three skinfolds) –( sum of three skinfolds)2+ (age)+ (triceps, abdomen,suprailiac)Nieman (2007)

8 Skinfold Test
MidaxillaryA vertical pinch on the midaxillary line which runs directly down from the
Center of the armpit. Raise your arm about your head and have your partner
Get these skinfold measurements just below the level of your nipple.

SuprailiacA diagonal pinch just above the front forward protrusion of the hip bone.

AbdominalA vertical pinch about one inch laterally from the belly button.

Mid ThighA vertical pinch midway between the knee and the top of the thigh.

TricepsA vertical pinch midway between the acromion process and the olecranon process (elbow)
BicepsA vertical pinch midway biceps at the same level the triceps skinfold was taken.

SubscapularA diagonal pinch at the inferior angle of the scapula.

Mid CalfA diagonal pinch taken at the widest point of the calf on the left side
Nieman (2007)
Submaximal Cycle Ergometer Test Protocol
The largest amount of oxygen that an individual can utilize during strenuous exercise to complete exhaustion Burton (2004)
A relationship between Heart rate and work rate (VO2) once a Heart rate of approximately 110 beats/min is reached the subject is required to complete one more stage past the one causing Heart rate of 110/beats/min. Each stage lasts 3 minutes unless the participant’s Heart rate has not reached a steady state (greater than 5 beats/min difference between the 2nd and 3rd min HR.
If this happens then an extra minute is added to that stage the pedal rate is maintained at 50 rev/min so that on a monark cycle a 0.5 – kp increase in load is equal to 150kpm/min or (25W) 50 rev/min x 6 ms/rev x 1 rep = 300kg.m/min 1 watt =6.0kg.m/min
1 kp=1 kilopond =kilogram The advantages for VO2 max testing is that it is safer it has a controlled pace there are people around for motivation. It is not population specific it has quick assessment value. The cost of this test is cost effective you don’t need highly trained people to complete the task. It doesn’t require a physician supervision. Nieman (2007)
“The submaximal exercise test makes three assumptions 1. That a linear relationship exists between heart rate,oxygen uptake, and workload. 2 That the maximum heart rate at a given age is uniform. 3 That the mechanical efficiency (oxygen uptake at a given workload) is the same for everyone”. Nieman (2007)
VO2 max Testing
VO2 max is the test done on treadmill bicycle ergometer and rowing ergometer are direct maximal tests. Participants work to exhaustion by progressively increasing their workload on a treadmill or bicycle ergometer. The workload can be altered by increasing both the speed and incline. A mouthpiece to the device and computer that continuously collect and anylyse the expired air and calculate the amount of oxygen use. The test continues until the individual’s oxygen consumption reaches a plateau or they indicate that they are unable to continue. Results of VO2 max can be given in absolute or relative forms. An absolute figure provides L/min whereas a relative figure is given in ml/kg/min. A relative figure allows better comparisons between participants as it takes into account the participant’s weight.Nieman (2007)
Exercise is an important part of staying fit and healthy aerobic strength training and flexibility exercises help lose weight and keep you physically fit and flexible that in return make you feel good.

Testing Individuals is essential it provides data for health and wellbeing and it helps athletes reach their full potential. In this assessment a demonstration of how protocols are effective and help not only sports athletes but like minded individuals trying to maintain health and fitness in a positive way can utilize the data for their advantages.

“BMI provides important information regarding the link between obesity and personal health it provides an imprecise indication of percent and body fat” Nieman (2007)

Heart Rate
The heart rate was measured with a HR monitor under the chest area and a watch to show the readings.

To measure your heart rate simply check your pulse. Place index and third fingers on your neck to the side of your windpipe or at your wrist place two fingers between the bone and the tendon over your radial artery on the thumb side of your wrist. A resting heart can be obtained through auscultation using the bell of the stethoscope feeling the pulse with your fingers or ECG recordings. When taking heart rate by auscultation the bell of the stethoscope is placed to the left of the sternum just above the level of the nipple. The heart beats (lub0dub) can be counted for 30 seconds and then multiplied by 2 to obtain beats per minute (bpm)
A normal resting heart rate for adults ranges from 60 to 100 beats per minute.” Nieman (2007)
Gender Differences
This is an essential part of the essential aspects of physiology research. With regard to the gender aspects in this program the aim was to include both men and women in the study. The results found similar increase in VO2 with increased work rate for men and women so it was not genders specific.
Cardiovascular Measurements
Resting heart rate measurements provide baseline information for comparison as cardiovascular strength improves. With exercise a client’s resting heart rate will decrease. Resting blood pressure measures your aerobic cardiovascular fitness level based on how quickly your heart rate returns to normal after exercise.

Blood Pressure
Blood pressure is when the heart beats it pumps blood around your body to give it the energy and oxygen it needs as the blood moves it pushes against the sides of the blood vessels the strength of this pushing is your blood pressure. If the blood pressure is too high it puts extra strain on your arteries and then the heart can have heart attacks and strokes. It is important to keep the heart within the individual’s healthy range.
When blood pressure is being taken it need to be by a qualified instructor a single reading does not provide accurate measure so as many as two or three times is a good indicator for consistency to be achieved.

“Blood pressure is taken with a stethoscope and sphygmomanometer which consists of an inflatable cuff connected by rubber tubes to a monometer, which measures pressure in millimeters of mercury and a rubber bulb that regulates air during the measurements. Blood pressure is the force of blood against the walls of the arteries and veins created by the heart as it pups the blood pressure cuff fits over the brachial artery the upper circle represents the common carotid artery and the lower circle the radial artery for sensing the heart rate”Nieman (2007)

Resting Heart rate is when the heart is at its most restive state and pumps the lowest amount of blood. The heart is in energy conservation mode because you’re not exercising. Resting heart rate is anywhere between 60 to 100 beats per min. Nieman suggests that highly active people typically have lower resting heart rates, because their bodies are fit enough to where their hearts don’t have to work as hard when at rest to maintain a steady heartbeat. Resting vs Exercise so many different methods for this but the easiest way to calculate this is 220 minus your age to get your maximum heart rate. 220-42=178 then calculate your heart beats per minute when you are at rest it is usually somewhere between 60 and 100 beats per min for the average adult.
“Exercise heart rate is best determined through the use of an electrocardiogram (ECG) a record of the electrical activity of the heart “Nieman (2007)
Muscle Endurance Tests
Push Up test
The upper body test that measures the upper body muscular endurance. The goal is to find out the maximum number of pushups you can do without stopping. The score can gauge against push up norms based on your age and gender.

Crunch Test
Measures core strength the crunch test measure abdominal strength and endurance of the abdominals and hip flexors it is very important that the back is supported and the core is stable the equipment needed is a flat clean or cushioned surface a stop watch recording sheet and pen. This would be considered if there wasn’t a gym available and the client was restricted for time. There are different versions either a 30 sec or 1 min crunch dependent on the clients fitness levels.

Exercise Testing in General
Anytime we exercise, there is always a risk. We want to minimise this risk of anyone suffering a heart attack or any other problem during any exercise testing. Therefore we require your informed consent before you participate in any exercise test. This means that you agree to participate in the test knowing that there could be some risk to your health. It also means that you understand the safety procedures used in this laboratory.

DISCUSSION
Introduction
Fitness testing is pretty critical for strength and conditioning coach to consider when working with athletes and where it sits with working with a programme if done correctly the results can give some valuable feedback not only on the identify strengths and weakness of the athlete. Then the trainer will have a guide of where it can go from there and how the effective past training programme that has been, when selecting a fitness programme you have to identify the athletes specific fitness components that are relevant to the activity or specific sport.

From this information you can do a series of fitness tests that will give you the feedback you are looking for specific to that athlete. A coach can train an athlete for their specific sport and not the specific fitness test if the training is right the results on the test will improve the results which are important. Results give an indication of your training programme the information is to see what is working so you can review and move forwards
The most commonly used ergometers are the treadmill and cycle ergometer which are able to engage a substantial proportion of the large muscles and estimate the body’s total aerobic capacity however sport specific ergometers for rowing and kayak have been designed to cater for these sports.

The advantages are that treadmills can be adjusted with speeds and elevation to increase the exercise intensity whilst cycle ergometers vary the power output by suspending known weights. The exercise intensities are easily calculated from the speed and elevation or loads that are being used.
The VO2 max values measured on the treadmill are approximately 10% higher than on the cycle ergometer Nieman (2007) and unlike cycling running is an exercise that is not affected by poor coordination inexperience or localised muscle fatigue in the thighs.

The research trends show that people from the lower economical groups tend to be a bit shorter and a bit fatter it shows poverty can influence your height and weight which effects BMI. Men are worse off if they are a bit shorter genetically and women are worse off if they are a bit fatter BMI results are best used for controlled trials that represent this that can measure if height and BMI can cause where a person sits in the economic world. Studies are showing that for a man if they are slightly shorter if appears to hinder there chance in life and a women if she is slightly fatter and overweight women are discriminated in the workplace Pearl (2014)
Height and weight play a role to determine several aspects of a person’s social economic status especially a women’s BMI for income and deprivation and men’s height for education income and job class. These findings have important social and health implications supporting evidence that overweight people especially women are at a disadvantage and that taller people especially men are at an advantage. Pearl (2014)
There is a wide range of protocols to determine VO2 max which provide flexibility depending on limitations present. The variations in each test included the mode of exercise as discussed earlier between running and cycling maximal vs submaximal continuous vs discontinuous methods, duration of exercise and increments between exercise stages. In addition there are certain assumptions in the calculations which observers must be aware of.

The body mass index was used to assess weight relative to height it is believed that differences in body composition are the main contributing factor as to why VO2 levels differ between genders. When analysing height and weight components between males and females it was evident that males were on average significantly larger then the females. Which is expressed in Nieman (2007) research that state that the majority of males can produce a higher VO2 max due to the fact they are anatomically bigger. So this explains the result of larger size it is known that males have larger chest cavities and larger lungs Will Payne (2018) which equates to them having larger lung capacity and Vo2 max levels. The standard deviation in figure 1 shows a difference in gender by 13.19%.

The limitations for this study is that there were only 5 participants for this reason the short testing period and unexpected occurrences such as inaccurate readings inability to retest subjects due to time restraints. During the testing stages the participants that showed the greatest variation was the well trained athlete vs the untrained athlete in heart rate. It would have been beneficial if there could have been a retest because the participants that were in this study two of the athletes were very fit one participant in their 20s and the other in their 40s the study really needed to retest to see the differences over time. The reliability of this study to be reappeared for a larger population with no more than one week difference between testing and retest.

Health screening is a process that is used to gather information on client’s medical history goals habits. Client forms are filled out as a record to help guide a customised workout plan towards a healthier lifestyle that can encourage clients to achieve their fitness goals in the safest most effective way possible. The fitness assessment is the measure of a client’s physical fitness level and is necessary to ensure the proper exercise program is prescribed. There are a number of factors that need to be considered when choosing the appropriate fitness test the test should replicate the requirements of the activity as identified in the activity analyses. Current and fitness health conditions importance of health screening to identify correct level of risk for the individual. All fitness protocols need thorough examination and correct collecting of data information to make informed decisions on health and wellbeing.

The body mass index was used to assess weight relative to height the correct equipment was used with weight scales and the height scales each participant weighed themselves on the scales then measurements for height followed wearing no shoes. It is believed that differences in body composition are the main contributing factor as to why VO2 levels differ between genders.
When analysing height and weight components between males and females it was evident that males were on average significantly larger then the females. Which is expressed in Nieman (2007) research that state that the majority of males can produce a higher VO2 max due to the fact they are anatomically bigger. So this explains the result of their larger size it is known that males have larger chest cavities and larger lungs Will Payne (2018) which equates to them having larger lung capacity and Vo2 max levels.
“When top female runners in the world are compared with their male counterparts, race times are 9-15% slower over all distances.”Nieman (2007)
The limitations in this study were that the PWC Cycle Ergometer tests were only competed on 5 participants instead of a larger population to collate more data for analysis. The tests could not be retested due to time restraints. The tests performed by two participants were not recorded correctly due to human error and lack of practice before tests completed.

The tests were performed under stress so vital important information was not recorded so then a follow up to clients had to be repeated to collate all data for submission of assessment at a later stage making the dates inconsistent. Another limitation in this study was that there was no training background and fitness levels analysed prior to the studies conduction as the students were a part of the class and huge time restrainst. If this study was to be compared to an Elite High performance group then there would be significant differences between fitness levels and genders would be expected.

Data Collection
The data collection process for Cycle Ergometer requires participants to have HR recorded at intervals until test completed. After completion of the fitness tests it showed the females had a more steady state HR then the males.
CONCLUSION
Completion of the study gives great opportunities for development and general use of the tests done in many different settings in society and the health industry. It is important for these tests to be done to give people a scientific approach to any problems that are approaching the community with sedentary behaviours and lifestyle changes and diseases. The submaximal testing and physical fitness tests are relevant today. The results suggest that the methods used were precise and effective even with human errors this did not impact on the overall recommendation given for physical activities.
Regardless of body composition or gender a person who participates regularly in moderate to vigorous physical activity will have a higher VO2 max then that of a sedentary individual. . When analysing height and weight components between males and females it was evident that males were on average significantly larger then the females. Which is expressed in Nieman (2007). The reliability of this study to be reappeared for a larger population with no more than one week difference between testing and retest.

Health screening is a process that is used to gather information on client’s medical history goals habits. The fitness assessment is the measure of a client’s physical fitness level and is necessary to ensure the proper exercise program is prescribed.

Fitness testing is pretty critical for strength and conditioning coach to consider when working with athletes and where it sits with working with a programme if done correctly the results can give some valuable feedback not only on the identify strengths and weakness of the athlete.

A comprehensive medical or health questionnaire should include a medical diagnoses previous physical examination findings history of symptoms recent illness hospitalization new medical diagnoses or surgical procedures orthopaedic problems medication use and drug allergies lifestyle habits exercise history work history and family history or disease. Good health, wellness, fitness and healthy lifestyles are important for all people to look feel good and be in better shape. For all of these aspects to tie in together there needs to first be some baseline fitness to work with which is your current physical fitness level. This is the start, a point of reference to help measure progress as each individual works towards their fitness goals.
Results

Figure 1 BMI Height and Weight Graph
The body mass index was used to assess weight relative to height it is believed that differences in body composition are the main contributing factor as to why VO2 levels differ between genders. When analysing height and weight components between males and females it was evident that males were on average significantly larger then the females. Which is expressed in Nieman (2007) research that state that the majority of males can produce a higher VO2 max due to the fact they are anatomically bigger. So this explains the result of larger size it is known that males have larger chest cavities and larger lungs Will Payne (2018) which equates to them having larger lung capacity and Vo2 max levels. The standard deviation in figure 1 shows a difference in gender by 13.19%.

Figure 2: BMI Height and Weight Graph.

Each of these aspects of BMI Weight and height sum of 6 and the sum of 8 and the waist to hip ratio portrayed in the graphs from figure 1 to 5. Comparisons and these results in relation to rest and during exercise will be evaluated in depth within the discussion section of this lab report.

Figure 3: Heart rate resting and Heart rate after Exercise Graph.

The following results that have been analyzed within this report are as follows the entire populations of participants and how they compare to standard with and without exercise the relationship between heart rate at rest and heart rate during exercise.

Figure 4 : Sum of 1

Figure 5: Somatype
0.5 to 2.5 Low
2.6 to 5.4 Moderate
5.5 to 7 High
7 plusExtremely High

Figure 6: Sum 8
References
David C Nieman Exercise Testing and Prescription A Health Related Approach Sixth Edition. (2007)pgs 35,87,132
Retrieved from https://kinesiologists.ca/wp/pt-store/free-resources/protocol-skinfold-clips/Ina Garthe Truis Raastad Per Egil refsnes Anu Koivisto Jorunn Sundgot Borgen(2014) Effect of two different weight loss rates on body composition and strength and power related performance in Elite athletes. Retrieved from https://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/pdf/10.1123/ijsnem.21.2.97
Rebecca L Pearl Rebecca M Puhl (2014)Measuring iternalized weight attitudes across body weight categories validation of the modified weight Bias internalisation scale.Retrived from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1740144513001137Retrieved from https://aucklandweightlosssurgery.co.nz/bmi-calculator/
Deborah Anne Burton, FRCA Keith Stokes, George M HallPhysiological Volume 4 Issue 6 Effects From Exercise (2004)Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/bjaed/article/4/6/185/314696H Bryan Brewer. James I Cleeman. Scott M Grundy. Claude Lenfant. Sidney C Smith.2004 Definition of Metabolic SyndromeRetrieved from https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1161/01.CIR.0000111245.75752.C6Subject 1 Subject 2 Subject 3 Subject 4 Subject 5 Mean Standard D F Mean M Mean
Body Mass 59 59 45 31.7 27.6 44.46 13.192361 41.33 29.65
Stretch Stature 1.63 1.63 1.63 1.8 1.77 1.692 0.0765245 1.64 1.78
Reach 28 27 29 22 26 26.4 2.4166092 28 24
Triceps Sf 11 11.5 16 22 16 15.3 3.9698866 12.7 19
Subscapular Sf 9 9 17 25 18 15.6 6.0530984 12 21.5
Biceps Sf 8 8.1 12.05 15 14 11.43 2.9184928 8.2 14.5
Iliac Crest Sf 11 11 11 22 22 15.4 5.3888774 12 22
Supraspinale Sf 9 9 16 18 19 14.2 4.3543082 10.33 18.5
Abdonminal Sf 17 17 21 29 17 20.2 4.6647615 15.16 23.25
Front Thigh Sf 21 21 26 24 21 22.6 2.059126 20.66 22.5
Medial Calf Sf 10.25 10 16 16 10 12.45 2.9 33.3 13.12
Arm girth relaxed 26 26 35 36 26 29.8 4.6647615 29 31
Arm girth flexed 28 28 28 38 28 30 4 27.66 33
Waist girth 69 69 84 86 69 75.4 7.8638413 73.33 77.5
Gluteal girth 95 95 108.5 110 95 100.7 6.9971423 146.75 102.5
Calf girth 32 32 39 38 32 34.6 3.2 34 35
Humerus breadth 6 6 6 7 6 6.2 0.4 6 6.5
Femur breadth 8 8 8.5 9 8 8.3 0.4 7.83 8.5
Heart Rate 76 74 58 85 85 75.6 9.8914104 69.33 85
Blood Pressure 100/70 100/73 117/80 130/90 110/82 126.6/79 105/74 120/87
BMI 59 57 45 31.7 27.6 44.06 12.768962 53.66 29.65
Heart Rate After Exercise 179 170 147 128 126 150 21.494185 165.33 127
Heart rate response to exercise Female Male Mean Std Dev Heart rate resting 69.33 85 75.5 9.89 Heart rate after exercise 165.33 127 150 21.49