As the world develops, new and more advanced ways of construction are being invented and replacing the old ways, the most important of them is prefabricated building / construction, which is a practice in which buildings are assembled of components, in which these structure components are manufactured in a factory and then transported to the assembly site (building location) where skilled labors combine the components.
This type of construction is on the rise and getting more popular and the main reasons are that, prefabricated construction is eco-friendly, cheaper, faster and more flexible than most of modern-day construction ways, this effected the civil, industrial and mechanical engineering departments majorly, as a new door was opened for research, and more jobs.
Architects today are trying to incorporate modernist design into prefab buildings, since they are built in small parts/components, these parts can be easily customized for the customer’s specific needs, it also increased the use of green materials in construction because different kinds of materials are being used to assemble the prefabricated frameworks, for example: wood, plastics, glass, and metals (intext citation 33).
Some of the most common disadvantages that prefabricated buildings face are, transportation of components, cannot be customized after fabricated in the factory, limited to several designs, they usually need large heavy-duty cranes while being handled with high precision carefully, and lastly the difficulty of finding labor.
Transportation ; lifting
Transportation is biggest issue for prefabricated construction, since its hard transport high volumes of prefabricated sections, and these sections are not packed densely, unlike current construction methods, in which everything can be packed easily and densely into a truck and can easily be held by tower cranes etc.
And since sometimes these sections can be very large, they would have a high amount of road and heavy-duty crane restrictions, for example: they can’t pass under bridges and through subways, and a specialized crane with a skilled driver needs to handle the components or the structure would fail due to stresses.
And all of this needs to be done while being handled into position carefully and with high precision as seen on the figure beside; this had a small impact on the total cost of prefab construction
Design and customizability
Since Prefabricated needs to be easily transported and lifted, the key element is to have a design that allows the ease for the components to withstand high transport and lifting stresses, so engineers usually design simple small shapes and frames that can be transported and lifted easily, this issue had reduced one of the advantages of prefabricated building, because prefab building can be designed for complex modern design since they are made in factories with high precision equipment and skilled labors.
Customizability is an issue that needs to be done while designing and not after the components are made, and since many times it is needed to modify the indoor space while building, prefabs cannot, so if a mistake is design in design it is not easy to fix or re customize the parts, because it will cost a lot.