INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION THEORY AND SOCIAL CONTROL INTRODUCTION What exactly is “communication”

INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION THEORY AND SOCIAL CONTROL
INTRODUCTION
What exactly is “communication”? According to ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Alleyne</Author><Year>n.d</Year><RecNum>109</RecNum><DisplayText>Alleyne (n.d)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>109</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>109</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Alleyne, M. D</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication and World Affairs</title><secondary-title>Journalism and Mass Communication</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journalism and Mass Communication</full-title></periodical><volume>1</volume><dates><year>n.d</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Alleyne (n.d) that the word “communication” were shared from the Latin root “communis”, meaning of common and from this root we got the other Latin word “communicare” which means “to make common to many, share, impart, and divide”. Communication consequently refers to some form of sharing about sharing knowledge, ideas and beliefs among the various people of the world.
When we talk about international communication, or communication in international relations, we are really expanding in the times of 20th century that most of the peoples are able to communicate and also provide an access to information with each other without boundaries through various mediums that are available such as through speaking, listening, reading and writing and sophistication to communicate has improved with the combination of all mediums ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Schoonraad</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>111</RecNum><DisplayText>(Schoonraad, Bornman, &amp; Lesame, 2001)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>111</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>111</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book Section”>5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Schoonraad, N., </author><author>Bornman, E.,</author><author>Lesame, Z</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The Media and Technology of International Communication</title><secondary-title>In International Communication: Only study guide for COM305-C, eds. E. Bornman, P. Fourie, Z. Lesame and N. Schoonraad</secondary-title></titles><pages>51-146</pages><dates><year>2001</year></dates><pub-location>Pretoria</pub-location><publisher>Department of Communication, University of South Africa</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Schoonraad, Bornman, & Lesame, 2001). Nowadays, information can be accessed from almost anywhere. A person can log onto the Internet and have unlimited information at their fingertips. From this, we actually can get many positive effects that such as a growth in innovation.

ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Collins English Dictionary</Author><Year>n.d</Year><RecNum>112</RecNum><DisplayText>Collins English Dictionary (n.d)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>112</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>112</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Web Page”>12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Collins English Dictionary, </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International</title></titles><dates><year>n.d</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/international?showCookiePolicy=true</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Collins English Dictionary (n.d) defines the term “international” as “1: of or involving two or more nations 2: controlling or legislating for several nations”. Therefore the classical understanding of “international” refers to the present, engaged in or conducted in whole or occurring between two or more nation-states. Basically, this definition states that the field of international communication should be assumed to emphasis mainly on interactions between and among nation-states ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Thussu</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>110</RecNum><DisplayText>(D. K Thussu, 2000)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>110</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>110</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Thussu, D. K</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication: Continuity and Change</title></titles><dates><year>2000</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Arnold</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(D. K Thussu, 2000).
International communication as a phenomenon is probably as old as human society itself and has occurred ever since people have organized themselves in communities and began to exchange ideas and products ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Schoonraad</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>111</RecNum><DisplayText>(Schoonraad et al., 2001)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>111</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>111</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book Section”>5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Schoonraad, N., </author><author>Bornman, E.,</author><author>Lesame, Z</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The Media and Technology of International Communication</title><secondary-title>In International Communication: Only study guide for COM305-C, eds. E. Bornman, P. Fourie, Z. Lesame and N. Schoonraad</secondary-title></titles><pages>51-146</pages><dates><year>2001</year></dates><pub-location>Pretoria</pub-location><publisher>Department of Communication, University of South Africa</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Schoonraad et al., 2001). In accordance with the increasing scope of international communication, ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Thussu</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>110</RecNum><DisplayText>D. K Thussu (2000)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>110</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>110</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Thussu, D. K</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication: Continuity and Change</title></titles><dates><year>2000</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Arnold</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>D. K Thussu (2000) defines international communication simply as communication that take place across international borders.

A THEORETICAL BASIS FOR INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION
2.1Global communication in the world of today
The terms ‘international,’ ‘transnational’ and ‘global’ communication are not only stands for different definitions of an expanding communication space but also reflect the history of worldwide communication as well as its diversity ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Volkmer</Author><Year>n.d</Year><RecNum>108</RecNum><DisplayText>(Volkmer, n.d)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>108</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>108</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Web Page”>12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Volkmer, I</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication Theory in Transition: Parameters of the New Global Public Sphere </title></titles><dates><year>n.d</year></dates><publisher>MIT Communications Forum</publisher><urls><related-urls><url>http://web.mit.edu/comm-forum/papers/volkmer.html</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Volkmer, n.d). ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Thussu</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>110</RecNum><DisplayText>D. K Thussu (2000)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>110</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>110</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Thussu, D. K</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication: Continuity and Change</title></titles><dates><year>2000</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Arnold</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>D. K Thussu (2000) explained the phenomenon of global communications was sparked at present due to the development of technology in principle. Global communication in the current world order is an amorphous and vast phenomenon with a tumultuous history and manifold and far reaching effects on macro and micro levels.
The world of international communication has changed rapidly in recent years. As ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>McPhail</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>113</RecNum><DisplayText>McPhail (2014)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>113</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>113</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>McPhail, T. L</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Global Communication: Theories, Stakeholders and Trends</title></titles><edition>Fourth </edition><dates><year>2014</year></dates><pub-location>Chichester, U.K</pub-location><publisher>Wiley Blackwell</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>McPhail (2014) said that we must not underestimate the nature and depth of the transformation taking place in global communication and so today we are going through a similarly deep alteration in our societies, powered by the major structural changes in global communication, mostly the Internet. Global communication was first perceived only as a tool for modernization, a process of developed countries trying to “modernize” undeveloped, or third countries ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Madikiza</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>115</RecNum><DisplayText>(Madikiza &amp; Bornman, 2007)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>115</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>115</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Madikiza, L.</author><author>Bornman, E</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication: Shifting Paradigms, Theories and Foci of Interest</title><secondary-title>Journal Communicatio</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal Communicatio</full-title></periodical><pages>11-44</pages><volume>33</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2007</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Madikiza & Bornman, 2007).

The improvements that give enlargement to global communication as we recognize it in the first decade of the 21st century started to change in the period between the two world wars ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Mowlana</Author><Year>1996</Year><RecNum>114</RecNum><DisplayText>(H Mowlana, 1996)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>114</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>114</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Mowlana, H</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Global Communication in Transition: The End of Diversity?</title></titles><dates><year>1996</year></dates><pub-location>Thousand Oaks, CA</pub-location><publisher>Sage</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(H Mowlana, 1996). Basically, an increase of international communication is directly after World War II and after the Cold War, with this increase being significantly greater after the Cold War.
Throughout this period global connectedness was improved by the development of information and communication technologies (ICTs) which some of these technologies include the steam engine, internal combustion engine, telephone, telegraph, and submarine cables between Europe and America ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Madikiza</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>115</RecNum><DisplayText>(Madikiza &amp; Bornman, 2007)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>115</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>115</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Madikiza, L.</author><author>Bornman, E</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication: Shifting Paradigms, Theories and Foci of Interest</title><secondary-title>Journal Communicatio</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal Communicatio</full-title></periodical><pages>11-44</pages><volume>33</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2007</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Madikiza & Bornman, 2007). The global communication provides us an observer view of events in furthest locations that we can take part in political discourses of global, regional or even on local significance.

APPROACHES TO THEORIZING INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION
One of the important issues in international communication is the foci of interest towards the theories. The phenomenon of global communications being a result to introduce many different theories that were explained and defined in the international communication. All of the theories have their own way of history background that can reveal the concerns of the in which they were developed. During the day in the 20th century, changing towards the theories of international communication into a distinct discipline within the new social sciences and in each era already changed and give an impact on society and also culture ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Virtual University of Pakistan</Author><Year>n.d</Year><RecNum>116</RecNum><DisplayText>(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>116</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>116</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Virtual University of Pakistan, </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>History and Development of Communication</title><secondary-title>International Communication</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Communication</full-title></periodical><dates><year>n.d</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d).
Traditionally, most of the mass media research are more focusing either in selecting micro issues, as for instance like they look forward on the issues of agenda-setting, ownership, or violence, or they look at a specific medium, such as print media, radio, television, or the Internet ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>McPhail</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>113</RecNum><DisplayText>(McPhail, 2014)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>113</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>113</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>McPhail, T. L</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Global Communication: Theories, Stakeholders and Trends</title></titles><edition>Fourth </edition><dates><year>2014</year></dates><pub-location>Chichester, U.K</pub-location><publisher>Wiley Blackwell</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(McPhail, 2014). Only occasionally do scholars examine the macro aspects of the overall mass communication system. Theories of communication had multiplied in response to new development in technology and media after the Second World War which first was radio and then television, and increasingly combined the international economic and political system ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Virtual University of Pakistan</Author><Year>n.d</Year><RecNum>116</RecNum><DisplayText>(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>116</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>116</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Virtual University of Pakistan, </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>History and Development of Communication</title><secondary-title>International Communication</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Communication</full-title></periodical><dates><year>n.d</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d). The following theories of international communication are approaching in macro aspects.

FREE FLOW OF INFORMATION
ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Ayish</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>120</RecNum><DisplayText>I. Ayish (2001)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>120</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>120</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ayish, I</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication in the 1900s: Implications for the Third World</title><secondary-title>International Affairs</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Affairs</full-title></periodical><pages>487-510</pages><volume>68</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2001</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>I. Ayish (2001) mentioned that discourses on the notion of the “free flow of information” existed during the Cold War when the international community was characterised by the bi-polar division between capitalism and socialism. The concept of the ‘free flow of information’ served both economic and political purposes which reflected the western country, and specifically United States that antipathy to state regulation and censorship of the media and its use for propaganda by its communist opponents ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Virtual University of Pakistan</Author><Year>n.d</Year><RecNum>116</RecNum><DisplayText>(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>116</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>116</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Virtual University of Pakistan, </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>History and Development of Communication</title><secondary-title>International Communication</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Communication</full-title></periodical><dates><year>n.d</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d).
The free flow discourse is totally surrounded in discourses on democracy. In a democracy, the role of the mass media is assumed to be to inform the electorate on public issues, to enlarge the base of participation in the political process and to watch over government behaviour. Proponents of a free flow of information base their arguments on the liberal discourse of the rights of individuals to freedom of opinion and expression ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ayish</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>120</RecNum><DisplayText>(I. Ayish, 2001)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>120</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>120</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ayish, I</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication in the 1900s: Implications for the Third World</title><secondary-title>International Affairs</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Affairs</full-title></periodical><pages>487-510</pages><volume>68</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2001</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(I. Ayish, 2001).

WORLD-SYSTEM THEORY
World system theory (WST) is providing the concepts, ideas, and language for structuring international communication and plus the theory has also been linked to dependency theory in that some of the criticisms are similar to the rhetoric and writings of the critical school of media scholars ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>McPhail</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>113</RecNum><DisplayText>(McPhail, 2014)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>113</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>113</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>McPhail, T. L</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Global Communication: Theories, Stakeholders and Trends</title></titles><edition>Fourth </edition><dates><year>2014</year></dates><pub-location>Chichester, U.K</pub-location><publisher>Wiley Blackwell</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(McPhail, 2014). The term of world system shows the social context in which people in the modern era live. This theory was proposed and developed by Immanuel Wallerstein ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Inkeles</Author><Year>1996</Year><RecNum>118</RecNum><DisplayText>(Inkeles &amp; Sasaki, 1996)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>118</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>118</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Inkeles, A.,</author><author>Sasaki, M</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A Definition of World-System Theory</title></titles><pages>484-497</pages><dates><year>1996</year></dates><pub-location>Englewood Cliffs</pub-location><publisher>Prentice-Hall</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Inkeles & Sasaki, 1996).

ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Turner</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>119</RecNum><DisplayText>Turner (2001)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>119</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>119</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Turner, J</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>World-Systems Theorizing</title><secondary-title>Handbook of Sociology Theory</secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2001</year></dates><pub-location>New York</pub-location><publisher>Plenum</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Turner (2001) points out that WST is a global economic growth takes place from a relatively small group of core-zone nation-states out to two other zones of nation-states, these being in the semi peripheral and peripheral zones. These three groupings or sectors of nation states have varying degrees of interaction on economic, political, cultural, media, technical, labor, capital, and social levels. It is expected that the zones exhibit unequal and uneven economic relations, with the core nations being the dominant and controlling economic entity.

ELECTRONIC COLONIALISM THEORY
According to ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>McPhail</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>113</RecNum><DisplayText>McPhail (2014)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>113</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>113</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>McPhail, T. L</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Global Communication: Theories, Stakeholders and Trends</title></titles><edition>Fourth </edition><dates><year>2014</year></dates><pub-location>Chichester, U.K</pub-location><publisher>Wiley Blackwell</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>McPhail (2014) Electronic colonialism theory (ECT) imitates much of the current global concerns, particularly with reference to culture, and is a good theoretical concept with which to begin. It provides a theoretical frame for examining the stakeholders and transnational issues. ECT focuses on the impact of repeated mass media messages, including advertising, influence how people look, think, and act. The aim of ECT is to look for how the mass media to capture the minds & the consumer habits of millions of viewers, readers, listeners around the world. There are 4 eras of Global Colonization:
The first era, Military colonialism was characterized by military conquests. These occurred during the Greco-Roman period and witnessed the expansion of the Roman Empire throughout most of what is modern Europe, including North Africa. The militant Christianity of the Crusades during the Middle Ages represented the second era as Christian colonialism. The Crusades, with the Catholic pope as patron, sought to control territory from Europe, across northern Africa, to the Middle East ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>McPhail</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>113</RecNum><DisplayText>(McPhail, 2014)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>113</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>113</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>McPhail, T. L</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Global Communication: Theories, Stakeholders and Trends</title></titles><edition>Fourth </edition><dates><year>2014</year></dates><pub-location>Chichester, U.K</pub-location><publisher>Wiley Blackwell</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(McPhail, 2014).
The third era, Mercantile colonialism was at the beginning with the invention of significant mechanical advances in the seventeenth century continued until the mid-twentieth century. Spawned by a desire for cheap labor, the importation of raw materials, and ready export markets cre2,ated by the colonies for finished products, the industrial revolution created Mercantile colonialism. Lastly, Electronic colonialism represents the dependent relationship of poorer regions on the post-industrial nations which is caused and established by the importation of communication hardware and foreign-produced software, along with engineers, technicians, and related information protocols ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>McPhail</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>113</RecNum><DisplayText>(McPhail, 2014)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>113</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>113</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>McPhail, T. L</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Global Communication: Theories, Stakeholders and Trends</title></titles><edition>Fourth </edition><dates><year>2014</year></dates><pub-location>Chichester, U.K</pub-location><publisher>Wiley Blackwell</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(McPhail, 2014).

2.2.4MODERNIZATION THEORY
Modernization theory emerged during a period when it was very important for the West to bring the newly independent nations of Asia, the Middle East and Africa into the sphere of capitalism ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ayish</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>121</RecNum><DisplayText>(M. Ayish, 2005)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>121</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>121</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ayish, M</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>From “Many Voices, One World” to “Many Worlds, One Voice”: Reflections on International Communication Realities in the Age of Globalisation</title><secondary-title>Javnost-The Public</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Javnost-The Public</full-title></periodical><pages>13-30</pages><volume>12</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2005</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(M. Ayish, 2005). ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Thussu</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>110</RecNum><DisplayText>D. K Thussu (2000)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>110</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>110</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Thussu, D. K</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication: Continuity and Change</title></titles><dates><year>2000</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Arnold</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>D. K Thussu (2000) stated that complementary to discourses on the benefits of the free flow of information in the years after World War II were views on the key role of international communication in the process of the modernization and development of the Third World.
Communication research on what came to be known as ‘modernization’ or ‘development theory’ was based on the belief that the mass media would help transform traditional societies. One of the earliest exponent of this theory was Daniel Lerner in 1958 had proposed that contact with the media helped the process of transition from a ‘traditional’ to a ‘modernized’ state, characterizing the mass media as ‘mobility multiplier’ ,which enables individuals to experience events in far-off places, forcing them to reassess their traditional way of life ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Virtual University of Pakistan</Author><Year>n.d</Year><RecNum>116</RecNum><DisplayText>(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>116</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>116</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Virtual University of Pakistan, </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>History and Development of Communication</title><secondary-title>International Communication</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Communication</full-title></periodical><dates><year>n.d</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d).

2.2.5DEPENDENCY THEORY
According to ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Thussu</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>110</RecNum><DisplayText>D. K Thussu (2000)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>110</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>110</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Thussu, D. K</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication: Continuity and Change</title></titles><dates><year>2000</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Arnold</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>D. K Thussu (2000), the roots of dependency theory is in Latin America during the 1960s and 1970s during a period when countries of the Third World realized that the developmental approach to international communication have failed to deliver. In other terms defines that it was established out of the circumstance that economic growth in the advanced industrialized countries did not lead to progress and development in subordinate countries.

Although it is rooted in the neo-Marxist political economy approach, the dependency perspective represents an important shift away from the nation-state as unit of analysis to a predominantly international level of analysis ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Servaes</Author><Year>1996</Year><RecNum>122</RecNum><DisplayText>(Servaes, Jacobson, &amp; White, 1996)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>122</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>122</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Servaes, J.,</author><author>Jacobson, T.,</author><author>White, S</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Participatory Communication for Development</title></titles><dates><year>1996</year></dates><pub-location>Acco</pub-location><publisher>Leuven</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Servaes, Jacobson, & White, 1996). Thus it emphasizes global structures and interrelationships that influence Third World development and postulates that post-independence dynamics keep Third World countries locked into former colonial power structures ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ayish</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>121</RecNum><DisplayText>(M. Ayish, 2005)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>121</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>121</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ayish, M</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>From “Many Voices, One World” to “Many Worlds, One Voice”: Reflections on International Communication Realities in the Age of Globalisation</title><secondary-title>Javnost-The Public</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Javnost-The Public</full-title></periodical><pages>13-30</pages><volume>12</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2005</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(M. Ayish, 2005).

2.2.6STRUCTURAL THEORY OF IMPERIALISM
The structural theory of imperialism of Galtung in 1971 can be considered as a development and improvement of dependency theory. Galtung is not only offers the descriptions for existing inequalities among regions, nation-states and collectivities, but also put emphasis on the probability of the existence of inequalities within a particular region, nation-state and/or collectivity ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Madikiza</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>115</RecNum><DisplayText>(Madikiza &amp; Bornman, 2007)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>115</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>115</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Madikiza, L.</author><author>Bornman, E</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication: Shifting Paradigms, Theories and Foci of Interest</title><secondary-title>Journal Communicatio</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal Communicatio</full-title></periodical><pages>11-44</pages><volume>33</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2007</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Madikiza & Bornman, 2007).
The centre-periphery relationships are sustained and strengthened by the information of flows and reproduction of economic activities. These create institutional relations that work for the interests of the dominant groups. These “cores” or “centres” within peripheral states can deliver a bridgehead through which the centre can enact its dominance of the periphery. In terms of culture, values and attitudes, elites in the periphery are often nearer to elites in the centre than to the people in their own country ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Thussu</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>110</RecNum><DisplayText>(D. K Thussu, 2000)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>110</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>110</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Thussu, D. K</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication: Continuity and Change</title></titles><dates><year>2000</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Arnold</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(D. K Thussu, 2000).
THEORY OF HEGEMONY
According to ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Thussu</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>110</RecNum><DisplayText>D. K Thussu (2000)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>110</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>110</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Thussu, D. K</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication: Continuity and Change</title></titles><dates><year>2000</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Arnold</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>D. K Thussu (2000) that the theory of hegemony is created on the work of the Italian Marxist, Antonio Gramsci (1891 – 1937), who died in prison under the Fascist regime in Italy. The idea of Gramsci’s in the theory of hegemony is rooted in the concept that the dominant social group in society has the capability to implement the intellectual and moral direction over society at large and to build a new system of social coalitions to supports its aims ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Virtual University of Pakistan;/Author;;Year;n.d;/Year;;RecNum;116;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;116;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;116;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Virtual University of Pakistan, ;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;History and Development of Communication;/title;;secondary-title;International Communication;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;International Communication;/full-title;;/periodical;;dates;;year;n.d;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d).

In accordance with Gramsci’s viewpoints, society is perceived as the site of struggle among interests through the domination of one ideology over others ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Littlejohn</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>123</RecNum><DisplayText>(Littlejohn &amp; Foss, 2005)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>123</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>123</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Littlejohn, S. W.,</author><author>Foss, K. A</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Theories of Human Communication</title></titles><edition>8</edition><dates><year>2005</year></dates><pub-location>Thomson</pub-location><publisher>Wadsworth</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Littlejohn & Foss, 2005). In international communication, the concept of hegemony is generally used to conceptualize political function of the mass media, as a key player in propagating and maintaining the dominant ideology and also to explain the process of media and communication production, with dominant ideology shaping production of news and entertainment ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Virtual University of Pakistan</Author><Year>n.d</Year><RecNum>116</RecNum><DisplayText>(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>116</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>116</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Virtual University of Pakistan, </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>History and Development of Communication</title><secondary-title>International Communication</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Communication</full-title></periodical><dates><year>n.d</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d).

CRITICAL THEORY
Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno who was the researchers at the Institute for Social Research in Frankfurt which is also known as the Frankfurt School that are responsible to play a leading role in the development of the critical theory ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Madikiza</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>115</RecNum><DisplayText>(Madikiza &amp; Bornman, 2007)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>115</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>115</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Madikiza, L.</author><author>Bornman, E</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication: Shifting Paradigms, Theories and Foci of Interest</title><secondary-title>Journal Communicatio</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal Communicatio</full-title></periodical><pages>11-44</pages><volume>33</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2007</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Madikiza & Bornman, 2007). Critical theory is a philosophical approach to culture, and especially to literature, that considers the social, historical, and ideological forces and structures which produce and constrain it. Adorno and Horkheimer believed that cultural products manifested the same kind of management practices, technological rationality and organizational schemes as the mass production industrial goods such as cars ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Virtual University of Pakistan</Author><Year>n.d</Year><RecNum>116</RecNum><DisplayText>(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>116</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>116</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Virtual University of Pakistan, </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>History and Development of Communication</title><secondary-title>International Communication</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Communication</full-title></periodical><dates><year>n.d</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d).

Critical theory is criticized for its highlighting on reason and the ownership and control of the means of cultural production as the main factors that determine the activities of artists. Writers and artists have claimed that creativity and cultural consumption can grow well simultaneously and independently and that the production process is not as organized according to rigidly standardized procedures as propagated by the theorists of the Frankfurt School ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Littlejohn</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>123</RecNum><DisplayText>(Littlejohn &amp; Foss, 2005)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>123</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>123</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Littlejohn, S. W.,</author><author>Foss, K. A</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Theories of Human Communication</title></titles><edition>8</edition><dates><year>2005</year></dates><pub-location>Thomson</pub-location><publisher>Wadsworth</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Littlejohn & Foss, 2005).

THE PUBLIC SPHERE
ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Benson</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>124</RecNum><DisplayText>Benson (2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>124</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>124</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Benson, R</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Shaping the Public Sphere: Habermas and Beyond</title><secondary-title>The American Sociologist</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>The American Sociologist</full-title></periodical><pages>175-197</pages><volume>40</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2009</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Benson (2009) did mentioned that the concept of “public sphere” was developed by Jürgen Habermas who is the German sociologist, and the central concept of this theory, the public sphere, is defined as an arena where a community of individuals are drawn together by participating in rational-critical debate. Theories of the public sphere have been a most important issue in Media Studies in particular.
Hebermas argued that the ‘bourgeois public sphere’ emerged in an expanding capitalist society exemplified by eighteenth century Britain, where entrepreneurs were becoming powerful enough to achieve autonomy from state and church and increasingly demanding wider and more effective political representation to facilitate expansion of their businesses ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Virtual University of Pakistan</Author><Year>n.d</Year><RecNum>116</RecNum><DisplayText>(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>116</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>116</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Virtual University of Pakistan, </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>History and Development of Communication</title><secondary-title>International Communication</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Communication</full-title></periodical><dates><year>n.d</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d). The public sphere is an area in social life where people can get together and freely discuss and identify societal problems, and through that discussion influence political action.

CULTURAL STUDIES PERSPECTIVES
ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Preston</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>125</RecNum><DisplayText>Preston (2005)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>125</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>125</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Preston, P</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Globalisation, Imperialism &amp; Communication Studies: From the MacBride Report to World Summit on the Information Society</title><secondary-title>Javnost-the Public</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Javnost-The Public</full-title></periodical><pages>31-46</pages><volume>12</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2005</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Preston (2005) views the cultural studies approach as a reaction against the holistic focus of structural and production orientated analyses of political and economic power relationships as represented in debates regarding the MacBride report, dependency theory, political economy and similar approaches. This theory is about the different cultures interpret media messages differently. An important contribution of cultural theorists is the fact that they have created the possibility of studying all kind of issues and subcultures that have been excluded in earlier theories of international communication ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Thussu</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>110</RecNum><DisplayText>(D. K Thussu, 2000)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>110</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″>110</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Thussu, D. K</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication: Continuity and Change</title></titles><dates><year>2000</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Arnold</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(D. K Thussu, 2000).
The main interests of cultural theorists have been the textual analysis of media texts that especially focus on the television texts as well as ethnographic research. The importance of this theorists from Hall’s is about the encoding and decoding of media messages and how these messages can be interpreted in different ways such as from accepting the dominant meaning, negotiating with the encoding message or opposing or resisting the dominant viewpoint as imbedded in the media text ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Madikiza;/Author;;Year;2007;/Year;;RecNum;115;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Madikiza ;amp; Bornman, 2007);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;115;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;115;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Madikiza, L.;/author;;author;Bornman, E;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;International Communication: Shifting Paradigms, Theories and Foci of Interest;/title;;secondary-title;Journal Communicatio;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Journal Communicatio;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;11-44;/pages;;volume;33;/volume;;number;2;/number;;dates;;year;2007;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Madikiza ; Bornman, 2007).

2.2.11THEORIES OF THE INFORMATION SOCIETY
ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite AuthorYear=”1″;;Author;Thussu;/Author;;Year;2000;/Year;;RecNum;110;/RecNum;;DisplayText;D. K Thussu (2000);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;110;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;110;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Thussu, D. K;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;International Communication: Continuity and Change;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2000;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;London;/pub-location;;publisher;Arnold;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;D. K Thussu (2000) stated that theories of the information society are one of the most recent theoretical strands to develop and the central of this theories is the conceptualization of information in economic terms. The term “information society” had emerged in the 1990s and concurred with the explosive development and global expansion of ICTs and the Internet in particular. According to ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite AuthorYear=”1″;;Author;Madikiza;/Author;;Year;2007;/Year;;RecNum;115;/RecNum;;DisplayText;Madikiza and Bornman (2007);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;115;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;115;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Madikiza, L.;/author;;author;Bornman, E;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;International Communication: Shifting Paradigms, Theories and Foci of Interest;/title;;secondary-title;Journal Communicatio;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Journal Communicatio;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;11-44;/pages;;volume;33;/volume;;number;2;/number;;dates;;year;2007;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;Madikiza and Bornman (2007), proponents of the idea of an information society believe that the new possibilities for the processing, storage and transmission of information have been creating an international information society that will in the end digitally link every home, office and business via the Internet through the network of all networks.

Researcher and analyst, Daniel Bell hold that society has moved through three stages: one relating to the post-industrial information workforce, a second dealing with information flows which particularly scientific knowledge, and a third concerning computers and the information revolution. Bell argues that the information age is not only characterized by the use of more information, but that a qualitatively different type of information has become available ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Thussu;/Author;;Year;2000;/Year;;RecNum;110;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(D. K Thussu, 2000);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;110;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;110;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Thussu, D. K;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;International Communication: Continuity and Change;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2000;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;London;/pub-location;;publisher;Arnold;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(D. K Thussu, 2000).

DISCOURSES OF GLOBALIZATION
Discourses on globalization is one of the latest and probably most important and wide-ranging theoretical debates that have emerged in International Communication. Although it appears that the usage of the term has increased consistently in recent years, globalization remains what may be called a shifting concept in that there is not a universally accepted definition of the term ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Virtual University of Pakistan;/Author;;Year;n.d;/Year;;RecNum;116;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;116;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;116;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Virtual University of Pakistan, ;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;History and Development of Communication;/title;;secondary-title;International Communication;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;International Communication;/full-title;;/periodical;;dates;;year;n.d;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d). Some theorists hold “globalization” to be the key concept to understand changes of human society into the third millennium ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Thussu;/Author;;Year;2000;/Year;;RecNum;110;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(D. K Thussu, 2000);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;110;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;110;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Thussu, D. K;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;International Communication: Continuity and Change;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2000;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;London;/pub-location;;publisher;Arnold;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(D. K Thussu, 2000).

ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite AuthorYear=”1″;;Author;Rantanen;/Author;;Year;2005;/Year;;RecNum;126;/RecNum;;DisplayText;Rantanen (2005);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;126;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;126;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Rantanen, T;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;The Media and Globalization;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2005;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;London;/pub-location;;publisher;Sage;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;Rantanen (2005) points out that there are three phases in discourses on globalization. In the first phase the main point of contestation was whether globalization exists or not. In the second phase it was no longer a question of whether globalization exists or not, but rather what the consequences are. Currently we are entering a third stage where debates address the responses necessary to counteract the negative consequences of globalization.

A CRITICAL POLITICAL-ECONOMY OF THE 21ST CENTURY
ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite AuthorYear=”1″;;Author;Thussu;/Author;;Year;2000;/Year;;RecNum;110;/RecNum;;DisplayText;D. K Thussu (2000);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;110;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;110;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Thussu, D. K;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;International Communication: Continuity and Change;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2000;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;London;/pub-location;;publisher;Arnold;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;D. K Thussu (2000) looks at the political economy approach as an umbrella theory that includes many of the other theories of international communication such as dependency and hegemony plus with the much of the critical research with regard to political economy has been related to patterns of ownership and production in the media and communications industries. In contrast to cultural analyses, it concerns itself primarily with primary structures of political and economic power.

Researchers working within this area have focused on transnational corporate and state power, with a particular stress on ownership concentration in media and communication industries world-wide and the growing trends towards vertical integration that companies controlling production in a specific sector and horizontal integration across sectors within and outside media and the communication industry ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Virtual University of Pakistan;/Author;;Year;n.d;/Year;;RecNum;116;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;116;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;116;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Virtual University of Pakistan, ;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;History and Development of Communication;/title;;secondary-title;International Communication;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;International Communication;/full-title;;/periodical;;dates;;year;n.d;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Virtual University of Pakistan, n.d). One of the important themes within the critical political economy approach in international communication is the transition from American post-war hegemony to a global order where world communication is dominated by transnational and multinational corporations supported by their national governments that are linked and integrated in global structures ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Thussu;/Author;;Year;2000;/Year;;RecNum;110;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(D. K Thussu, 2000);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;110;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;110;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Thussu, D. K;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;International Communication: Continuity and Change;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2000;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;London;/pub-location;;publisher;Arnold;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(D. K Thussu, 2000).
SYMBOL AND MEANING IN INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION
SEMIOTICS AND INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION
The French semiotician, Roland Barthes (1915-1980) became the first one to apply semiotic theory directly to the media and culture in his now classic 1957 book entitled Mythologies. Mythologies signals, in effect, the start of media semiotics proper, bringing out the importance of studying the media texts in terms of how they recycle mythological or second-order meanings ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Cobley;/Author;;Year;2010;/Year;;RecNum;128;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Cobley, 2010);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;128;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;128;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Cobley, P;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;The Routledge Companion to Semiotics;/title;;/titles;;edition;1;/edition;;dates;;year;2010;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;New York;/pub-location;;publisher;Routledge;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Cobley, 2010). ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite AuthorYear=”1″;;Author;Floch;/Author;;Year;2002;/Year;;RecNum;127;/RecNum;;DisplayText;Floch (2002);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;127;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;127;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Floch, J. M;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Semiotics, Marketing and Communication: Beneath the Signs, the Strategies;/title;;secondary-title;The International Journal on Media Management ;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;The International Journal on Media Management;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;190-191;/pages;;volume;4;/volume;;number;3;/number;;dates;;year;2002;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;Floch (2002) defined semiotics which is also called as ‘semiology’ is the study of signs and meanings. Semiotics is the study of everything that can be used for communication: words, images, traffic signs, flowers, music, medical symptoms, and much more
Semiotics is the science of communication and sign systems, in short, of the ways people understand phenomena and organize them mentally, and of the ways in which they devise means for transmitting that understanding and for sharing it with others. Although natural and artificial languages are therefore central to semiotics, its field covers all non-verbal signaling and extends to domains whose communicative dimension is perceived only unconsciously or subliminally. Knowledge, meaning, intention and action are thus fundamental concepts in the semiotic investigation of phenomena ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Deely;/Author;;Year;2004;/Year;;RecNum;129;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Deely, 2004);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;129;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;129;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Deely, J;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Why Semiotics?;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2004;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;Ottawa;/pub-location;;publisher;Legas Press;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Deely, 2004).

Semiotics began to become a major approach to cultural studies in the late 1960s and it could be everywhere. It would form part of social psychology, and hence of general psychology. According to ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite AuthorYear=”1″;;Author;Chandler;/Author;;Year;2003;/Year;;RecNum;132;/RecNum;;DisplayText;Chandler (2003);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;132;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;132;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Web Page”;12;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Chandler, D;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Semiotics for Beginners;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2003;/year;;/dates;;urls;;related-urls;;url;http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/S4B/semiotic.html;/url;;/related-urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;Chandler (2003), semiotics usually divided into the three branches which first is semantics, a relation between signs and the things to which they refer. Second is syntactics, a relations among signs in formal structures and lastly is?pragmatics, a relation between signs and their effects on the people who use them. Studying semiotics can assist us to become more aware of reality as a construction and of the roles played by ourselves and others in constructing it. It can help us to realize that information or meaning is not ‘contained’ in the world or in books, computers or audio-visual media.

Semiotics is not widely institutionalized as an academic discipline. It is a field of study involving many different theoretical stances and methodological tools. One of the broadest definitions is that of Umberto Eco, who states that ‘semiotics is concerned with everything that can be taken as a sign.’ Semiotics involves the study not only of what we refer to as ‘signs’ in everyday speech, but of anything which ‘stands for’ something else. In a semiotic sense, signs take the form of words, images, sounds, gestures and objects ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Chandler;/Author;;Year;2003;/Year;;RecNum;132;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Chandler, 2003);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;132;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;132;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Web Page”;12;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Chandler, D;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Semiotics for Beginners;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2003;/year;;/dates;;urls;;related-urls;;url;http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/S4B/semiotic.html;/url;;/related-urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Chandler, 2003).
THE BASIC SEMIOTICS COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL
There is a variety of idealized models of communication systems exist, and all may have something in common. Communication is typically defined as a process of sending and receiving that such a communication process can be found in many disciplines. A basic semiotic communication process model were used to pay the explicit attention to communication processes ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Albertazzi;/Author;;Year;2009;/Year;;RecNum;130;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Albertazzi ;amp; Cobley, 2009);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;130;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;130;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Albertazzi, D.,;/author;;author;Cobley, P;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;The Media: An Introduction;/title;;/titles;;edition;3rd;/edition;;dates;;year;2009;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;Harlow;/pub-location;;publisher;Pearson;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Albertazzi ; Cobley, 2009).

The communication process model that we adopt makes a distinction between three levels of abstraction in the communication process: the media level, the information level, and the communication level. The media level of communication describes the physical characteristics of the communication process. The question is: how? How are messages put across? The information level of communication has to with the data contents. It is not about how messages are transported, but which messages are transported. The communication level is about what people do with messages ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Moor;/Author;;Year;2002;/Year;;RecNum;131;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Moor ;amp; Weigand, 2002);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;131;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;131;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Moor, A. D.,;/author;;author;Weigand, H;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Towards A Semiotic Communications Quality Model;/title;;secondary-title;Organizational Semiotics: Evolving a Science of Information Systems;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Organizational Semiotics: Evolving a Science of Information Systems;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;275-285;/pages;;dates;;year;2002;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Moor ; Weigand, 2002).
This communication model is grounded in the language as action perspective paradigm, which studies problems of organizations from the perspective of the conversations that are being conducted to get things done, and thus starts from a process view. The refinement offered by the ladder can be used very well to investigate a certain layer in more detail. For example, at the communication level, the goal-oriented aspects of communication should be investigated against the background of the organizational embedding of communication acts. These aspects relate to the pragmatic and social levels of the semiotic ladder, respectively ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Moor;/Author;;Year;2002;/Year;;RecNum;131;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Moor ;amp; Weigand, 2002);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;131;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;131;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Moor, A. D.,;/author;;author;Weigand, H;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Towards A Semiotic Communications Quality Model;/title;;secondary-title;Organizational Semiotics: Evolving a Science of Information Systems;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Organizational Semiotics: Evolving a Science of Information Systems;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;275-285;/pages;;dates;;year;2002;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Moor ; Weigand, 2002).
At each process model level, quality attributes can be provided. Quality attributes at the media level include media richness, interactivity, reliability and efficiency. Information quality attributes are for instance integrity, completeness, precision, and timeliness. Integrity constraints in the communication system can be used to enforce some of these qualities. An example of a complex communication level attribute is the communicative rationality expressed by communicating parties in their interactions. Traditional quality management systems mainly focus on the two lower levels. A comprehensive quality management approach is thus needed that accounts for all levels and their dependencies ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Moor;/Author;;Year;2002;/Year;;RecNum;131;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Moor ;amp; Weigand, 2002);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;131;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;131;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Moor, A. D.,;/author;;author;Weigand, H;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Towards A Semiotic Communications Quality Model;/title;;secondary-title;Organizational Semiotics: Evolving a Science of Information Systems;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Organizational Semiotics: Evolving a Science of Information Systems;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;275-285;/pages;;dates;;year;2002;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Moor ; Weigand, 2002).
A fundamental aspect of quality is fitness-for-use. The quality of a tool cannot be assessed without taking into account the goals it has to serve. As a consequence, total quality management should explicitly account for the dependencies between the levels. For example, communicative acts that are aimed at fixing commitments between parties are better served by a medium that offers persistence such as paper or email, whereas explorative acts are sometimes better served by a medium that does not offer persistence such as a face-to-face meeting or an untapped telephone call ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Moor;/Author;;Year;2002;/Year;;RecNum;131;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Moor ;amp; Weigand, 2002);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;131;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eze29xa5wdpzd9ezz94vsfxhzszpfxet2s05″;131;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Moor, A. D.,;/author;;author;Weigand, H;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Towards A Semiotic Communications Quality Model;/title;;secondary-title;Organizational Semiotics: Evolving a Science of Information Systems;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Organizational Semiotics: Evolving a Science of Information Systems;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;275-285;/pages;;dates;;year;2002;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Moor ; Weigand, 2002).
INTERNATIONAL BROADCASTING
INTRODUCTION
International broadcasting define by ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite AuthorYear=”1″;;Author;Price;/Author;;Year;2008;/Year;;RecNum;506;/RecNum;;DisplayText;Price, Haas, and Margolin (2008);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;506;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”;506;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Price, M,;/author;;author;Haas, S, ;/author;;author;Margolin, D,;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;New technologies and international broadcasting. ;/title;;secondary-title;American Academy of Political and Social Science;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;American Academy of Political and Social Science;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;150-172;/pages;;volume;616;/volume;;number;1;/number;;dates;;year;2008;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;Price, Haas, and Margolin (2008) as ‘the use of electronic media by one society to shape the opinion of the people and leaders of another’. The term includes the use of radio, television, and increasingly, internet broadcasting targeting a foreign population ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Kamalipour;/Author;;Year;2006;/Year;;RecNum;503;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Kamalipour, 2006);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;503;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”;503;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Kamalipour, Y.R.;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Global communication;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2006;/year;;/dates;;publisher;Thomson Wadsworth;/publisher;;isbn;9780495050278;/isbn;;urls;;related-urls;;url;http://books.google.com.my/books?id=iIgiAQAAMAAJ;/url;;/related-urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Kamalipour, 2006).

International broadcasting is often treated as ‘one component of public diplomacy’ ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Cull;/Author;;Year;2008;/Year;;RecNum;507;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Cull, 2008);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;507;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”;507;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Cull, N,;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Public diplomacy: taxonomies and histories;/title;;secondary-title;Annals of the American Academy of Politi616cal and Social Science;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Annals of the American Academy of Politi616cal and Social Science;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;31-54;/pages;;volume;616;/volume;;dates;;year;2008;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Cull, 2008), an umbrella term used to describe ‘an instrument of public diplomacy’ ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Mowlana;/Author;;Year;1997;/Year;;RecNum;517;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Hamid Mowlana, 1997);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;517;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”;517;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Hamid Mowlana;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Global Information and World Communication: New Frontiers in International Relations ;/title;;/titles;;pages;67-86;/pages;;dates;;year;1997;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;London;/pub-location;;publisher;Sage Oublication Ltd;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Hamid Mowlana, 1997). It is likely an agent of psychological warfare to inform and influence the receiver on ‘politically, socially, culturally or academically’ ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Mowlana;/Author;;Year;1997;/Year;;RecNum;517;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Hamid Mowlana, 1997);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;517;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”;517;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Hamid Mowlana;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Global Information and World Communication: New Frontiers in International Relations ;/title;;/titles;;pages;67-86;/pages;;dates;;year;1997;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;London;/pub-location;;publisher;Sage Oublication Ltd;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Hamid Mowlana, 1997). Longwave, mediumwave or shortwave radio and in the recent satellite broadcasting and internet is used as medium to broadcast ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Taylor;/Author;;Year;2003;/Year;;RecNum;512;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Taylor, 2003);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;512;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”;512;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Taylor, P;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Munitions of the minds: a history of propaganda from the ancient world to the present era. ;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2003;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;Manchester;/pub-location;;publisher;Manchester University Press;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Taylor, 2003). Three primary actors involved in the flow of international broadcasting which are government agencies, international institutions and private organizations ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Mowlana;/Author;;Year;1997;/Year;;RecNum;517;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Hamid Mowlana, 1997);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;517;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”;517;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Hamid Mowlana;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Global Information and World Communication: New Frontiers in International Relations ;/title;;/titles;;pages;67-86;/pages;;dates;;year;1997;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;London;/pub-location;;publisher;Sage Oublication Ltd;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Hamid Mowlana, 1997).

REASON OF INTERNATIONAL BROADCASTING
ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite AuthorYear=”1″;;Author;Boyd;/Author;;Year;1980;/Year;;RecNum;520;/RecNum;;DisplayText;Boyd (1980);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;520;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”;520;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author; Barret O Boyd;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;The International news agency;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;1980;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;London;/pub-location;;publisher;Constable ;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;Boyd (1980) identified four major reasons that broadcaster aimed to reach out international audience. The four reasons are: to enhance national or organizational prestige; to promote national or organizational interests; to transmit religious, ideological or political indoctrination; and to foster cultural ties. In today’s satellite era, ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Straubhaar</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>521</RecNum><DisplayText>Straubhaar (2000)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>521</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>521</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book Section”>5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Straubhaar, J.D,</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>G.Wang,</author><author>J.Servaes,</author><author>Goonasekera,A,</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Cultural capital and media choices</title><secondary-title>The new communiccation landscape: Demystufying media globalization</secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2000</year></dates><pub-location>New York</pub-location><publisher>Routledge</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Straubhaar (2000) added a fifth reason; to sell advertising for internationally and a sixth, to sell access to pay-tv broadcast.
Besides, ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Boyd</Author><Year>1980</Year><RecNum>520</RecNum><DisplayText>Boyd (1980)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>520</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>520</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author> Barret O Boyd</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The International news agency</title></titles><dates><year>1980</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Constable </publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Boyd (1980) clarify, the early reason, people perceived international radio development `as medium of propaganda, an instrument of foreign policy or to promote ideology of the broadcaster.’ Almost all international broadcasting have some variety of influence over their audience.
THE HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL BROADCASTING
Most colonial powers started services in the 1920s, with Soviet Union became the first nation to exploit new medium of international broadcasting ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Hamelink;/Author;;Year;1994;/Year;;RecNum;508;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Hamelink, 1994);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;508;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”;508;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Hamelink, C ;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;The oilitics of world communication: a human right perspective ;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;1994;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;London;/pub-location;;publisher;Sage;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Hamelink, 1994). In 1926, the first world’s short-wave radio broadcast to U.S, Central and South America and the Far East was from Nauen, German ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Thussu</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>504</RecNum><DisplayText>(Daya Kishan Thussu, 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>504</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>504</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Daya Kishan Thussu</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication: Continuity and Change </title></titles><dates><year>2006</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Hodder Arnold Publication</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Daya Kishan Thussu, 2006). These followed by Netherlands who started in 1927, Germany in 1929, France in 1931 and Britain in 1932 ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Head</Author><Year>1985</Year><RecNum>509</RecNum><DisplayText>(Head, 1985)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>509</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>509</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Head, S,</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>World Brodcasting System: A Comparative Analysis</title></titles><dates><year>1985</year></dates><pub-location>Belmont, CA</pub-location><publisher>Wadsworth</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Head, 1985). BBC Empire Service which started on December 19, 1932, aimed transmission towards Australia and New Zealand. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>McChesney</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>510</RecNum><DisplayText>(McChesney, 2004)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>510</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>510</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>McChesney, R,</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The problem of the media: Us Communication politics in the 21st century</title></titles><dates><year>2004</year></dates><pub-location>New York </pub-location><publisher>Monthly Review Press</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(McChesney, 2004).
Effectively, beginning with the efforts by various nations during World War 1 to influence publics in other nations using radio broadcasting, the idea of propaganda gathered ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Kamalipour</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>503</RecNum><DisplayText>(Kamalipour, 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>503</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>503</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kamalipour, Y.R.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Global communication</title></titles><dates><year>2006</year></dates><publisher>Thomson Wadsworth</publisher><isbn>9780495050278</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://books.google.com.my/books?id=iIgiAQAAMAAJ</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Kamalipour, 2006). Whatever the situation is, propaganda continued to be directly associated with war or open conflict through WW11.

CONTROL OF INFORMATION DURING WORLD WAR 11
The second World War saw an explosion in international broadcasting as a propaganda tool. During the era, Russian, German, British, and Italian international broadcasting services have expanded. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Thussu</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>504</RecNum><DisplayText>Daya Kishan Thussu (2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>504</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>504</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Daya Kishan Thussu</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication: Continuity and Change </title></titles><dates><year>2006</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Hodder Arnold Publication</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Daya Kishan Thussu (2006) wrotes, ‘radio broadcasts were used to weaken the spirit of enemy, publics and armies, spread belief and dissent through misinformation or combat other countries’ propaganda’. ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite AuthorYear=”1″;;Author;Wood;/Author;;Year;1992;/Year;;RecNum;513;/RecNum;;DisplayText;Wood (1992);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;513;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”;513;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Wood, J,;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;History of Internationaal Broadcastung ;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;1992;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;London;/pub-location;;publisher;Peter Peregrinus;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;Wood (1992) define it as “one-way communication system designed to influence belief”. Some practitioners have taken a more conflict-oriented approach. Edward Kaufman, the member of the American Broadcasting Board of Governors, BBG, referred propaganda to ‘modern media wars’ ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Kamalipour;/Author;;Year;2006;/Year;;RecNum;503;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Kamalipour, 2006);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;503;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”;503;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Kamalipour, Y.R.;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Global communication;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2006;/year;;/dates;;publisher;Thomson Wadsworth;/publisher;;isbn;9780495050278;/isbn;;urls;;related-urls;;url;http://books.google.com.my/books?id=iIgiAQAAMAAJ;/url;;/related-urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Kamalipour, 2006). Among the international broadcaster in the war time are as follows:
Soviet Broadcast – The first public broadcast of propaganda was message of Russian communists by Lenin on the overthrown of Kerensky government and the formed of a new Soviet Government ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Hale;/Author;;Year;1975;/Year;;RecNum;511;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Hale, 1975);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;511;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”;511;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Hale, J, ;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Radio Power: Propaganda and International broadcasting ;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;1975;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;London;/pub-location;;publisher;Paul Elek;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Hale, 1975). Communist Propaganda, a central component of post-war Soviet diplomacy, was aimed at Eastern Block and Third World. Soviet broadcast policies were aimed at countering Western propaganda and promoting Moscow’s line on international affairs.
Italy Broadcast – colonial campaign to promote Fascist idea and win public support for invasion of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) was created by Benito Mussolini, a Ministry of Print and Propaganda in 1935 ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Thussu</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>504</RecNum><DisplayText>(Daya Kishan Thussu, 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>504</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>504</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Daya Kishan Thussu</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication: Continuity and Change </title></titles><dates><year>2006</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Hodder Arnold Publication</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Daya Kishan Thussu, 2006). Radio sets were also distributed to Arabs, who tuned to only one station; Radio Bari in southern Italy.
British Broadcast – The steps urged British Foreign Office to create BBC’s monitoring unit. The unit monitoring international broadcast and later start an Arabic language service to the region ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Hamelink;/Author;;Year;1994;/Year;;RecNum;508;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Hamelink, 1994);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;508;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”;508;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Hamelink, C ;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;The oilitics of world communication: a human right perspective ;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;1994;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;London;/pub-location;;publisher;Sage;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Hamelink, 1994). BBC established the Empires Service in 1932 with the aim of connecting the scattered parts of the British Empire. Funded by the Foreign Office, it tended to reflect the government’s public diplomacy and by the end of the war it was broadcasting in 39 languages.
During the war, BBC helped the US Army to create the American Forces Network. The recorded broadcast shows for US forces in Britain, the Middle East and Africa. At the same BBC’s French service was used by French General de Gaulle to send messages to the Resistance movement in occupied France. A weekly 15 minute newsletter was broadcast to Russia with the cooperation of the Russian news agency TASS. It also broadcast The Shadow of the Swastika, the first of a series of dramas about the Nazi Party.

Germany Broadcast – The head of Hitler’s propaganda ministry, Josef Goebbels, played a key role in disseminating the racist and anti-Semitic ideology of the Third Reich ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Wood</Author><Year>1992</Year><RecNum>513</RecNum><DisplayText>(Wood, 1992)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>513</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>513</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Wood, J,</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>History of Internationaal Broadcastung </title></titles><dates><year>1992</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Peter Peregrinus</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Wood, 1992). Goebbels set up the Reich Chamber of Commerce in 1933 to ensure that everybody thought in the correct manner. This organisation dealt with literature, art, music, radio, film, newspapers etc. To produce anything that was in these groups, you had to be a member of the Reich Chamber ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Wood</Author><Year>1992</Year><RecNum>513</RecNum><DisplayText>(Wood, 1992)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>513</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>513</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Wood, J,</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>History of Internationaal Broadcastung </title></titles><dates><year>1992</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Peter Peregrinus</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Wood, 1992).

As a result of this policy, Nazi Germany introduced a system of censorship. People could only read, see and hear what the Nazis wanted them to read, see and hear. Books that did not match the Nazi ideal were burnt in public. The same approach was used in films. Films released to the public concentrated on certain issues such as; the Jews; the greatness of Hitler; the way of life for a true Nazi especially children, and how badly Germans who lived in countries in Eastern Europe were treated ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Taylor</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>512</RecNum><DisplayText>(Taylor, 2003)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>512</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>512</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Taylor, P</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Munitions of the minds: a history of propaganda from the ancient world to the present era. </title></titles><dates><year>2003</year></dates><pub-location>Manchester</pub-location><publisher>Manchester University Press</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Taylor, 2003).

The ensure that everybody could hear Hitler speak, Goebbels organised the sale of cheap radios or called the “People’s Receiver”. Loud speakers were put up in streets so that people could not avoid any speeches by the Fuhrer. Cafes and other such properties were ordered to play in public speeches by Hitler ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Hale</Author><Year>1975</Year><RecNum>511</RecNum><DisplayText>(Hale, 1975)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>511</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>511</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Hale, J, </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Radio Power: Propaganda and International broadcasting </title></titles><dates><year>1975</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Paul Elek</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Hale, 1975). The Nazi Reich broadcast were targeted at German living abroad as far as South America and Australia. By 1945 Germany radio was broadcasting in more than 50 languages ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Taylor</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>512</RecNum><DisplayText>(Taylor, 2003)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>512</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>512</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Taylor, P</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Munitions of the minds: a history of propaganda from the ancient world to the present era. </title></titles><dates><year>2003</year></dates><pub-location>Manchester</pub-location><publisher>Manchester University Press</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Taylor, 2003).
American Broadcast – U.S. Government control the press by issued A “Code of Wartime Practices for the American Press” . All news about war had to pass through the Office of War Information ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Burns</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>505</RecNum><DisplayText>(Burns &amp; Novick, 2007)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>505</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>505</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Web Page”>12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ken Burns </author><author>Lynn Novick</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The War </title></titles><number>April 20, 2014</number><dates><year>2007</year></dates><pub-location>Washington DC</pub-location><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.pbs.org/thewar/at_home_communication_news_censorship.htm</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>April 20, 2014</custom2></record></Cite></EndNote>(Burns & Novick, 2007). President Roosevelt ordered War Department to published images of war through film, magazines, posters, newspaper and newsreel to attract audience on a wider scale. Following Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbour, the slogan “Kill Japs, kill Japs, kill more Japs” become popular. In 1942, the United States took over several existing private shortwave broadcasters aimed at international audiences and initiated the Voice of America ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>McChesney</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>510</RecNum><DisplayText>(McChesney, 2004)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>510</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>510</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>McChesney, R,</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The problem of the media: Us Communication politics in the 21st century</title></titles><dates><year>2004</year></dates><pub-location>New York </pub-location><publisher>Monthly Review Press</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(McChesney, 2004).

Japanese Broadcast – Japanese wartime propaganda included short-wave transmission from Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK), The Japan broadcasting Corporation to South East and East Asia population ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Kamalipour</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>503</RecNum><DisplayText>(Kamalipour, 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>503</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>503</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kamalipour, Y.R.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Global communication</title></titles><dates><year>2006</year></dates><publisher>Thomson Wadsworth</publisher><isbn>9780495050278</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://books.google.com.my/books?id=iIgiAQAAMAAJ</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Kamalipour, 2006). In addition, NHK also transmitted high quality propaganda programmes in English such as Zero Hero or “Tokyo Rose”, along with American music to help ensure listeners, aimed to demoralized US troops in the Pacific Island ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Wood</Author><Year>1992</Year><RecNum>513</RecNum><DisplayText>(Wood, 1992)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>513</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>513</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Wood, J,</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>History of Internationaal Broadcastung </title></titles><dates><year>1992</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Peter Peregrinus</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Wood, 1992).
Japan’s concept of Hakko Ichiu, or “eight corners under one roof,” was their counter to America’s Manifest Destiny.  Japan catered to the idea of a common Asian race and promoted ethnic unity ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Navarro</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>514</RecNum><DisplayText>(Navarro, 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>514</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>514</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Web Page”>12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Anthony V. Navarro</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A Critical Comparison Between Japanese and American Propaganda during World War II</title></titles><number>April 25, 2014</number><dates><year>2006</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>https://www.msu.edu/~navarro6/srop.html</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>April 25, 2014</custom2></record></Cite></EndNote>(Navarro, 2006). Japanese films showed a lot of sacrifice in order to create humanity and empathy for the characters. Historical accounts of America’s was often used to describe the racist, injustice, greedy and care about nothing except for their own capital gain ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Kamalipour</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>503</RecNum><DisplayText>(Kamalipour, 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>503</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>503</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kamalipour, Y.R.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Global communication</title></titles><dates><year>2006</year></dates><publisher>Thomson Wadsworth</publisher><isbn>9780495050278</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://books.google.com.my/books?id=iIgiAQAAMAAJ</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Kamalipour, 2006).
THE COLD WAR ERA (1945-1991)
The usage of radio to promote its political interests reached its high point during the decades of the cold war ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Thussu</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>504</RecNum><DisplayText>(Daya Kishan Thussu, 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>504</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>504</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Daya Kishan Thussu</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication: Continuity and Change </title></titles><dates><year>2006</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Hodder Arnold Publication</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Daya Kishan Thussu, 2006). Contrasting view between Soviet Union and America led to increased international broadcasting, as both party attempted to influence each other’s domestic population. More than 80 countries had official international services aimed at other countries ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Wood</Author><Year>1992</Year><RecNum>515</RecNum><DisplayText>(Wood, 1992)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>515</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>515</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Wood, J,</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>History of Internationaal Broadcastung </title></titles><dates><year>1992</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Peter Peregrinus</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Wood, 1992).

The Voice of America (VOA) has tended to concentrate on international news, music and culture to the target country including Middle East. Although VOA had been a part of Us diplomacy during ww11, propaganda become a crucial component in cold war time. Those stations have strengthened with inclusion of Radio Free Europe (RFE), Radio Liberty (aimed at former USSR), Radio TV Marti (Cuba) and AlHurra with Radio Sawa (aimed at Middle East). All were state-funded and answerable to US State Department. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Youmans</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>481</RecNum><DisplayText>(Youmans &amp; Powers, 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>481</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>481</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>William Lafi Youmans</author><author>Shawn Powers</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Remote Negotiations: International Broadcasting as Bargaining in the Information Age </title><secondary-title>International Journal of Communication</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Journal of Communication</full-title></periodical><pages>2149-2172</pages><volume>6</volume><number>2012</number><dates><year>2012</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/viewFile/1490/788</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Youmans & Powers, 2012). Following the outbreak of Korean War, VOA was used to promote US president Harry Truman’s `Campaign for Thruth’ against communism and to propagate the ideal of the American way of life’. The worldwide campaign was aimed at legitimizing US involvement in the Korean War. In Asia, VOA operated from Japan, Thailand and Sri Lanka. Following the Chinese revolution in 1949, US priority was to stop the expansion of communism into other parts of Asia.
During the Vietnam War, US propaganda leads by the joint public office aim to undermine support for communists and to keep support of the South Vietnamese. These messages were conveyed mainly through dropping leaflets and broadcasting from low-flying aircraft. During seven years it operated in Vietnam armed forces dropped nearly 50 billion leaflets –nearly 1500 for every person ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Burns</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>505</RecNum><DisplayText>(Burns &amp; Novick, 2007)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>505</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>505</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Web Page”>12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ken Burns </author><author>Lynn Novick</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The War </title></titles><number>April 20, 2014</number><dates><year>2007</year></dates><pub-location>Washington DC</pub-location><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.pbs.org/thewar/at_home_communication_news_censorship.htm</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>April 20, 2014</custom2></record></Cite></EndNote>(Burns & Novick, 2007).

By the late 1960s Moscow Radio was the world’s largest single international broadcaster with broadcast hours 1950 hours per week in 84 languages ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Critchlow</Author><Year>1999</Year><RecNum>501</RecNum><DisplayText>(Critchlow, 1999)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>501</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>501</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Critchlow, James</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Western Cold War Broadcasting</title><secondary-title>Journal of Cold War Studies</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Cold War Studies</full-title></periodical><pages>168-175</pages><volume>1</volume><number>3</number><keywords><keyword>COLD War, 1945-1989</keyword><keyword>BROADCASTING industry</keyword></keywords><dates><year>1999</year><pub-dates><date>Fall99</date></pub-dates></dates><publisher>MIT Press</publisher><isbn>15203972</isbn><accession-num>6934206</accession-num><work-type>Article</work-type><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezaccess.library.uitm.edu.my/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&amp;db=aph&amp;AN=6934206&amp;site=ehost-live&amp;scope=site</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1162/152039799316976841</electronic-resource-num><remote-database-name>aph</remote-database-name><remote-database-provider>EBSCOhost</remote-database-provider></record></Cite></EndNote>(Critchlow, 1999). In many countries, the consequences or penalty for listening to a certain foreign broadcasts was severe. In Soviet Union, who listened to the BBC-WS and some other western broadcasters would be branded as dissident and can be send to concentration camp in Siberia which he may have not return ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Straubhaar</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>521</RecNum><DisplayText>(Straubhaar, 2000)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>521</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>521</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book Section”>5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Straubhaar, J.D,</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>G.Wang,</author><author>J.Servaes,</author><author>Goonasekera,A,</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Cultural capital and media choices</title><secondary-title>The new communiccation landscape: Demystufying media globalization</secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2000</year></dates><pub-location>New York</pub-location><publisher>Routledge</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Straubhaar, 2000).

In contrast to VOA, The BBC’s external services presenting a mature and balanced view reporting. This policy gave BBC has a capacity to critize its own government however indirectly ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Head</Author><Year>1985</Year><RecNum>509</RecNum><DisplayText>(Head, 1985)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>509</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>509</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Head, S,</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>World Brodcasting System: A Comparative Analysis</title></titles><dates><year>1985</year></dates><pub-location>Belmont, CA</pub-location><publisher>Wadsworth</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Head, 1985). Government has no influence on BBC since the relay stations and overseas transmitter were owned by the Diplomatic Wireless Service. That was why BB has more international credibility than any other broadcasting organization and has characterized the UK/US relationship ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Thussu</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>504</RecNum><DisplayText>(Daya Kishan Thussu, 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>504</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>504</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Daya Kishan Thussu</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication: Continuity and Change </title></titles><dates><year>2006</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Hodder Arnold Publication</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Daya Kishan Thussu, 2006)
Religious propaganda broadcasting such as Kol Israel (Zionist), Radio Free Russia (Christian) is also playing a key role in another political confrontation. Radio RSA, as part of the South African Broadcasting Corporation, was established in 1966 to promote the image of South Africa internationally and reduce criticism of apartheid. It continued in 1992, when the post-apartheid government renamed it Channel Africa ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Boyd</Author><Year>1980</Year><RecNum>520</RecNum><DisplayText>(Boyd, 1980)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>520</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>520</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author> Barret O Boyd</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The International news agency</title></titles><dates><year>1980</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Constable </publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Boyd, 1980).

INFLUENCING FACTOR AND IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL BROADCASTING
Technical and financial factor
The ability to provide technical capacity for production and distribution determines the amount of flow that is produced and disseminated. On the other hand, the maintenance of the equipment in different geographical barrier is too high. The cost of human resource was also high.
VOM, was closed because the transmitter is too old and cannot provide enough capacity or clear broadcast to the target countries. In another case, USIA’s (U.S. Information Agency) Worldnet which was a major innovation during Reagan administration was cancelled by the U.S. Congress because of cost counted against benefit (less than 2 million viewers in Western Europe) ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Jackson</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>518</RecNum><DisplayText>(Jackson, 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>518</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>518</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Web Page”>12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>David S. Jackson </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The Future of International Broadcasting</title></titles><number>http://mountainrunner.us/</number><dates><year>2013</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://mountainrunner.us/</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>http://mountainrunner.us/</custom2></record></Cite></EndNote>(Jackson, 2013). Meanwhile in 1980’s BBC had to drop its services in three languages because of budget constraints ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Bearne</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>519</RecNum><DisplayText>(Bearne, 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>519</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>519</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Web Page”>12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Suzanne Bearne </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>BBC global news audience hits 250m</title></titles><number>April 26, 2014</number><dates><year>2013</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.broadcastnow.co.uk/news/broadcasters/bbc-global-news-audience-hits-250m/5057722.article</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>April 26, 2014</custom2><remote-database-name>www.broadcastnow.co.uk</remote-database-name></record></Cite></EndNote>(Bearne, 2013). Besides, the financial capability to provide multilingual services will gain size and diversity of the audience. In February 2012, China has started to serve US citizens its own side of the story. CCTV America broadcast from its studio in Washington, D.C. It is part of Beijing’s outreach of telling its own story through its own voice.   The move was after Russia Today, Russian Government’s media channel expanded in U.S.

National sovereignty
Direct broadcasting by using satellite TV poses serious threats to national sovereignty, control and regulation. The users are expose especially
on propaganda, commercial domination and cultural intrusion.
Orbital/ spectrum spacing
The increased number of communications satellites, will cause orbital spacing or `band capacity/frequencies’. The capacity of a band of frequencies is the maximum quantity of information which that band can convey ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Youmans</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>481</RecNum><DisplayText>(Youmans &amp; Powers, 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>481</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>481</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>William Lafi Youmans</author><author>Shawn Powers</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Remote Negotiations: International Broadcasting as Bargaining in the Information Age </title><secondary-title>International Journal of Communication</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Journal of Communication</full-title></periodical><pages>2149-2172</pages><volume>6</volume><number>2012</number><dates><year>2012</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/viewFile/1490/788</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Youmans & Powers, 2012)
One way flow of information
would create imbalance information. History shows that international broadcasting represent their country on their foreign policy that can persuade people and decreased cultural integrity and national identity. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Wood</Author><Year>1992</Year><RecNum>515</RecNum><DisplayText>(Wood, 1992)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>515</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>515</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Wood, J,</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>History of Internationaal Broadcastung </title></titles><dates><year>1992</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Peter Peregrinus</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Wood, 1992) There is also research of imbalance report towards Third World country ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Kamalipour</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>503</RecNum><DisplayText>(Kamalipour, 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>503</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>503</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kamalipour, Y.R.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Global communication</title></titles><dates><year>2006</year></dates><publisher>Thomson Wadsworth</publisher><isbn>9780495050278</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://books.google.com.my/books?id=iIgiAQAAMAAJ</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Kamalipour, 2006).
Small audience and prefer locality – Previous research shows that audience of international broadcasting channel to be highly segmented into different interest such as news, music, documentaries, sports and so on. These audience relatively smaller than the audiences for regular national broadcast television. Research also shown (Straubhaar 1991, 2000) that mass audience tend to prefer national broadcaster that are more relevant to them.
4.7TREND TOWARDS TELEVISION (1920’S)
With the changes in ffundamental’s geopolitic after the Cold War, it requires international broadcasting reconfigure their new targets, new justifications, and new purposes. New technologies and new way of distributing information, have also been influential in the reassessment of international broadcasting. The scenario leads to international broadcasting underwent a deep crisis of purpose and credibility in the mid-1990s.
ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Wood</Author><Year>1992</Year><RecNum>515</RecNum><DisplayText>Wood (1992)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>515</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>515</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Wood, J,</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>History of Internationaal Broadcastung </title></titles><dates><year>1992</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Peter Peregrinus</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Wood (1992) in his book wrote, at the end of the Cold War, many international broadcasters cut back on hours and foreign languages broadcast, or reemphasized other language services. Most of the international radio services move towards rebroadcasting, transmitting on local FM or streaming audio feeds on the internet. There is a trend towards TV and news websites ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Mowlana</Author><Year>1997</Year><RecNum>517</RecNum><DisplayText>(Hamid Mowlana, 1997)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>517</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>517</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Hamid Mowlana</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Global Information and World Communication: New Frontiers in International Relations </title></titles><pages>67-86</pages><dates><year>1997</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Sage Oublication Ltd</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Hamid Mowlana, 1997).

The BBC World Service was the first broadcaster to consider setting up a satellite television news and information channel as far back as 1976. Other services are Cable News Network International (CNNI), British Broadcasting Corporation’s World, CNN international and the entrants, Al-Jazeera.
BROADCASTING IN MALAYSIA
Since its early broadcast in 1 April 1946, and later became the government official broadcaster under Ministry of InformationRTM now have 36 radio stations including channel in local dialect. The sole function of broadcasting until the country independence in 1957 was to help the government to control the social and political confusion that followed the war and the communist insurgent 1948. Today, besides RTM, Malaysia have a total of 19 private radio station and 12 television station. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Malaysia</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>522</RecNum><DisplayText>(Department of Broadcasting Malaysia, 2014)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>522</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>522</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Web Page”>12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Department of Broadcasting Malaysia,</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>RTM</title></titles><number>April 27, 2014</number><dates><year>2014</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.rtm.gov.my/</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Department of Broadcasting Malaysia</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>522</RecNum><record><rec-number>522</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>522</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Web Page”>12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Department of Broadcasting Malaysia,</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>RTM</title></titles><number>April 27, 2014</number><dates><year>2014</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.rtm.gov.my/</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Department of Broadcasting Malaysia, 2014)
RTM External service Voice of Malaysia began broadcast on 15 February 1963. On 1972 VOM have service in seven languages; English, Thailand, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tagalog_language” o “Tagalog language” Tagalog, Malay, Indonesia, Mynmar and Arabic. VOM’s mission is to help government explaining their policy and stand on local and foreign affairs. VOM portray to an overseas audience true images of Malaysia, from the economic and perspective to encourage foreign investment and from social and cultural of Malaysian people. Target listeners are foreigners and overseas Malaysian students. The broadcast were transmitted to Indonesia, Australia, New Zealand, China, Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand, Myanmar, North Africa and Middle East ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Roslina Abdul Latif</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>523</RecNum><DisplayText>(Roslina Abdul Latif, Wan Amizah Wan Mahmud, &amp; Ali Salman, 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>523</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>523</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Roslina Abdul Latif,</author><author>Wan Amizah Wan Mahmud,</author><author>Ali Salman,</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A Broadcasting History of Malaysia: Progress and Shifts</title><secondary-title>Asian Social Science; Vol. 9, No. 6; 2013</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Asian Social Science; Vol. 9, No. 6; 2013</full-title></periodical><volume>9</volume><number>6</number><dates><year>2013</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ass/article/viewFile/27010/16494</url></related-urls></urls><access-date>April 27, 2014</access-date></record></Cite></EndNote>(Roslina Abdul Latif, Wan Amizah Wan Mahmud, & Ali Salman, 2013)
RTM has been played as active broadcaster and assist on the establishment of the Asia Pacific Broadcasting Union, ABU a year later. As a non-profit, non-government, professional association, ABU establishment is to assist the development of radio and television broadcasting in the region by promoting and encouraging regional and international co-operation. The ABU runs a wide range of activities, including the daily Asia Vision satellite TV news exchange, providing a major source of news for the 20-plus national broadcasters who take part ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>524</RecNum><DisplayText>(Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union, 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>524</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>524</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Web Page”>12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union,</author></authors></contributors><titles></titles><number>April 27, 2014</number><dates><year>2011</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.abu.org.my/</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>April 27, 2014</custom2><access-date>April 27, 2014</access-date></record></Cite></EndNote>(Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union, 2011).

Meanwhile in 1977, another unique regional inter-governmental organisation under United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (UN-ESCAPE), The Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development (AIBD) was established. With 26 members, AIBD mandated to achieve a vibrant and cohesive electronic media environment in the Asia-Pacific region through technical training and resource development. Both of the organization are hosted by the Government of Malaysia and the secretariat is located at Angkasapuri Complex, Kuala Lumpur. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>525</RecNum><DisplayText>(Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development, 2014)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>525</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>525</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Web Page”>12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development,</author></authors></contributors><titles></titles><number>April 27, 2014</number><dates><year>2014</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.aibd.org.my/</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development, 2014).

ISSUE AND CHALLENGES
CHANGING THE IMAGE
At one side, we see that international broadcasting is idealized because it stands for objective coverage of world events, to bring necessary information. At the other hand, the propaganda image that attached along with it should be change. After the collapse of the former Soviet Union, Russian international broadcasting agencies stop carrying their previous agenda. The transmitting facilities in the former Soviet Union and the Eastern European countries, once the source of propaganda dissemination, are no longer used against the Western nations ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Navarro</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>514</RecNum><DisplayText>(Navarro, 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>514</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>514</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Web Page”>12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Anthony V. Navarro</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A Critical Comparison Between Japanese and American Propaganda during World War II</title></titles><number>April 25, 2014</number><dates><year>2006</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>https://www.msu.edu/~navarro6/srop.html</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>April 25, 2014</custom2></record></Cite></EndNote>(Navarro, 2006)
Ironically, the United States, UK, and Germany now began to rent the same equipment for propaganda purposes against new targets. The VOA, for example, employed seven 500 kW short-wave transmitters in several places in Russia to broadcast to China and other Asian countries. The BBC rented three Russian transmitters to broadcast to China as well. The Voice of Germany, Deutsche Welle used eleven Russian short-wave transmitters in that country to broadcast to China, Northeast Asia, South Asia, West Asia, and Russia ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Thussu</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>504</RecNum><DisplayText>(Daya Kishan Thussu, 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>504</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>504</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Daya Kishan Thussu</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>International Communication: Continuity and Change </title></titles><dates><year>2006</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Hodder Arnold Publication</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Daya Kishan Thussu, 2006). The cooperation shows that they aim the same objective; to provide the best information to their users. With that, the propaganda objective removed, instead its create greater cooperation and open to accept other nations foreign policies, economic and trade objectives.

REASSESSMENT
For a very long time, Voice of America, VOA is a symbol of United States international broadcasting with CIA funding and two other affiliate that have different target countries; Radio Free Europe (targeting Central and Eastern Europe) and Radio Liberation (targeting the Soviet Union). Previously, government denied its relationship to the stations. Subsequently, the Radios merged (Radio Liberation became Radio Liberty) and the federal government acknowledged its financing role when President Bill Clinton called for consolidation ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Navarro</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>514</RecNum><DisplayText>(Navarro, 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>514</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>514</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Web Page”>12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Anthony V. Navarro</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A Critical Comparison Between Japanese and American Propaganda during World War II</title></titles><number>April 25, 2014</number><dates><year>2006</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>https://www.msu.edu/~navarro6/srop.html</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>April 25, 2014</custom2></record></Cite></EndNote>(Navarro, 2006)
The budget for VOA slashed, that would save $400 million in a 5-year period. On April 30, 1994, the President signed into law the United States International Broadcasting Act. All the Radios, including Radio Marti, would report to International Broadcasting Bureau within the United States Information Agency (USIA) ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Youmans</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>481</RecNum><DisplayText>(Youmans &amp; Powers, 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>481</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>481</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>William Lafi Youmans</author><author>Shawn Powers</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Remote Negotiations: International Broadcasting as Bargaining in the Information Age </title><secondary-title>International Journal of Communication</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Journal of Communication</full-title></periodical><pages>2149-2172</pages><volume>6</volume><number>2012</number><dates><year>2012</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/viewFile/1490/788</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Youmans & Powers, 2012). The legislation also authorized the establishment of a Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG) to oversee the Broadcasting Bureau to make sure the content provide balanced, accurate, and comprehensive news and information. In order to obey the rules and avoiding any conflict, the name of Radio Free Iran changed to the Persian-language service of RFE/RL, meanwhile Radio Free Africa was change to Radio Democracy ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Overview</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>516</RecNum><DisplayText>(BBG Audience Overview, 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>516</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>516</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Report”>27</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>BBG Audience Overview,</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>BBG Global Audience Perfomance Report 2012</title></titles><dates><year>2012</year><pub-dates><date>April 26, 2014</date></pub-dates></dates><pub-location>Washington D.C</pub-location><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.bbg.gov/wp-content/media/2012/11/BBG-2012-Audience-Overview-Factsheet.pdf</url></related-urls></urls><access-date>April 26, 2014</access-date></record></Cite></EndNote>(BBG Audience Overview, 2012).

GLOBAL ADJUSTMENT
The issue of international broadcasting and its post-Cold War justification was a global one. Canada and Australia came close to eliminating external broadcasting. In 1999, Deutsche Welle, the German external broadcaster, have to dismiss their staff and budget cuts. The drastic action was similar for many external broadcasters ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>McChesney</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>510</RecNum><DisplayText>(McChesney, 2004)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>510</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>510</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>McChesney, R,</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The problem of the media: Us Communication politics in the 21st century</title></titles><dates><year>2004</year></dates><pub-location>New York </pub-location><publisher>Monthly Review Press</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(McChesney, 2004)
NEW FOCUS
Another rising function of international broadcasting is to assist in the
prevention of conflict, the moderation of voices so as to avoid genocides and other massive violations of human rights and the post-conflict contexts. Combinations of so-called monitoring and peace broadcasting give special coverage on rebuilding new society in conflict area such as Rwanda, Cambodia and Kosovo and bring along external donors from international and local agencies and also NGO. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Jackson</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>518</RecNum><DisplayText>(Jackson, 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>518</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eew9900d7529fsesxs8v5x5ta5z2edaw5p0d”>518</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Web Page”>12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>David S. Jackson </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The Future of International Broadcasting</title></titles><number>http://mountainrunner.us/</number><dates><year>2013</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://mountainrunner.us/</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>http://mountainrunner.us/</custom2></record></Cite></EndNote>(Jackson, 2013) This new role, to some extent will transform the international broadcasters image as a propaganda medium.
CONCLUSION
Bringing about major changes in international broadcasting isn’t easy. But international broadcasters have no other choice if they want to adapt to the growing competition abroad and the ways people consume information these days. The new development on the flow of expansion services by foreign countries in Western countries should be taken as a lesson. International broadcasting should be conducted with the highest professional standard of journalism, which relies on accuracy, objectivity and comprehensive. After going through the challenging historic spasms of fascism, the Cold War and decolonization, it became necessary for the World Service to find a more inclusive definition for its long-term purposes. The service found itself with another new role, and new listeners.
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