Erdiston Teachers Training College Curriculum Design and Development Teenage Health Janelle Corbin Date 31st May

Erdiston Teachers Training College Curriculum Design and Development Teenage Health Janelle Corbin Date 31st May, 2018 Tutor Mr. T. Best Table of Contents TOC o 1-3 h z u HYPERLINK l _Toc515481097 Rationale PAGEREF _Toc515481097 h 3 HYPERLINK l _Toc515481098 Philosophical Statement PAGEREF _Toc515481098 h 6 HYPERLINK l _Toc515481099 Aims and Objectives PAGEREF _Toc515481099 h 8 HYPERLINK l _Toc515481100 Learning Outcomes PAGEREF _Toc515481100 h 8 HYPERLINK l _Toc515481101 Organization and Design PAGEREF _Toc515481101 h 9 HYPERLINK l _Toc515481102 Scheduling and Time PAGEREF _Toc515481102 h 10 HYPERLINK l _Toc515481103 Content PAGEREF _Toc515481103 h 11 HYPERLINK l _Toc515481104 Assessment PAGEREF _Toc515481104 h 19 HYPERLINK l _Toc515481105 Identification of stakeholders PAGEREF _Toc515481105 h 20 HYPERLINK l _Toc515481106 Description of dissemination PAGEREF _Toc515481106 h 22 HYPERLINK l _Toc515481107 Conclusion and Summary PAGEREF _Toc515481107 h 23 HYPERLINK l _Toc515481108 References PAGEREF _Toc515481108 h 25 Rationale Teenagers are a vulnerable population. They are in a period of their lives where for most of them, their health is not a crucial aspect to be taken seriously. They spend most of their time engaged in watching television, indulging in poor eating habits, and surfing social media. These practices however, tend to have a negative impact on their lives, and have the potential to increase their inactivity thus, placing them at a higher risk of developing lifelong illnesses. There has been an increase of non-communicable diseases within the society, as a result of poor lifestyles habits and practices that can affect the health of teenagers within the secondary schools especially those with special needs. It is therefore, imperative that a curriculum such as Teenage Health be developed to teach students the importance of their health and how best they can play a key role in adapting a healthier lifestyle to prevent diseases or illnesses. According to the former Health Minister John Boyce, he stated in his speech at the opening ceremony of a meeting convened by the Caribbean Public Health Agency (CARPHA), in collaboration with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and CARICOM 2017, to discuss the issue of childhood obesity in the Caribbean, that not only were obese children at higher risk for hypertension, high cholesterol, heart disease, diabetes and some cancers, but they might also experience social and psychological problems such as discrimination, bullying, low self-esteem and social isolation(Boyce, 2017). With that being said poor lifestyle practices also affects students social interactions within others which can in turn lower their self-esteem. The Teenage Health curriculum is designed to engage students in a meaningful way, where they can learn about the positive factors that contribute to optimal health and well-being and in building skills to live healthy, active lives. Students health and well-being contribute to their ability to learn in all disciplines, including Health, Mathematics and Physical Education just to name a few, and that learning in turn contributes to their overall well-being and a well-rounded citizen contributing to the development of society. From my experience as an instructor who teaches students with special needs, and from observing their interactions with the average Barbadian it is clearly thought that such persons cannot do anything more than sit idly by whilst their caregivers cater to their every need. It is imperative therefore, that students in educators care be given just as great an opportunity for learning as any other. It is my belief that all students especially those with special needs should also be able to carry out simple day to day tasks in order to keep them healthy. Such students should become familiar with proper personal hygiene, good lifestyle practices and its benefits to their health and the implications of not doing so. This curriculum allows them to gain theoretical and practical knowledge in the aforementioned topics, thereby offering excellent self-motivation for them to choose healthier foods, engage in physical activities and practice good personal hygiene. As a result, it will boost their self-esteem as they can feel good within and also comfortable with their outward appearances. A needs assessment was conducted via interviews and observations at the Challenor Creative Arts and Training Centre on students with special needs. The students comprise of those who are Downs syndrome, Cerebral Palsy hearing impaired and intellectually challenged learners. It was established that the students needed to understand the benefits of healthy lifestyle practices, good personal hygiene and the implications of physical inactivity. Therefore, this curriculum will cover topics that will teach students how to take care of themselves in order to obtain optimal health by practicing good personal hygiene. They would learn how they can experience good health and well-being by eating healthier and engaging in physical activities. Differentiated learning styles would be applied to cater to all students learning intelligence to ensure that each student understand all concepts that is being taught. The curriculum has the following characteristics It is student-centred Promotes access to educational opportunities for all students Encourages life-long learning Encourages optimum use of a variety of educational resources Integrates the use of technology Engages parents as valuable stakeholders which assist in the development of all students. Philosophical Statement The Teenage Health curriculum is designed with the progressivism philosophy. Progressivism is an educational theory that is concerned with learning by doing and purports that children learn best when pursuing their own interests and satisfying their own needs (Foundations of America Education). This perspective involves two essential elements (1). Respect for diversity, meaning that each individual should be recognized for his or her own abilities, interests, ideas, needs, and cultural identity, and (2). the development of critical, socially engaged intelligence, which enables individuals to understand and participate effectively in the affairs of their community in a collaborative effort to achieve a common good (Westbrook, 1991). I concur with the philosophy of the father of Progressivism John Dewey that is why this curriculum content is derived from students interest and quests they have about health. John Dewey believed that education should focus on the students rather than the content of the subject area, or the teacher. This educational philosophy stresses that students should test their ideas through experimentation or experiences. He also noted that learning is rooted in the questions of learners that arise through their everyday experiences. Learners are seen as problem solvers and critical thinkers who makes meaning through their individual experience in the physical and cultural context. Effective teachers provide experiences so that students can learn by doing. Educators have the responsibility to promote students well-being by creating, fostering, and sustaining a learning environment that is healthy, caring, safe, inclusive, and accepting. A learning environment of this kind will support not only students cognitive, emotional, social, and physical development but also their mental health, their resilience, and their overall state of well-being (Ontario, 2015). Student with special needs learn best through hands on experiences. This hands-on approach is recognized as the most effective way in changing behaviour (Smith de Zwart, 2010). When special needs students are given the opportunity to practice what they are taught, they tend to grasp the concepts better. Students develop a variety of skills in the classroom through the constant practice being engaged in. This can be done in practical sessions where the students are given the opportunity to gain a real-life contexts mirroring what is taught at school and home providing a springboard for learning. I believe that the progressive philosophical approach is the best strategy when teaching students with special needs. When using this strategy Im able to see the strengths and weakness of my students. It is a very effective strategy for me to see the students growth and development. I am able to reflect and see where they require improvements and help them to achieve success. There are several implications for the organizations as a result of using the progressivism approach. It is imperative that for the Teenage Health curriculum to be implement successfully, the organization needs to have teachers who are trained and will be able to use a variety of teaching methods and skills in order to enhance the learning and teaching experience, by using more student centred techniques which will have students more engaged in the lessons and willing to participate. Therefore, not having trained teachers on board can be an implication to the organization. Organizations will have to invest in training teachers so that they will be equipped with the necessary skills and knowledge to assist students in obtaining their maximum potential. (Wiles Bondi, 2007) stated that one of the reasons that a new curricula fails is because of the skills and knowledge lacking by educators. Additionally, the lack resources can limit teachers ability to fully utilize their skills and creativity to enhance the learning and teaching experience. Aims and Objectives The teenage health curriculum is designed to enable children with special needs to experience growth and expertise in the area of social and emotional development, cognitive development, and physical development as it relates to their health and its implications. The teaching methods and learning activities is geared towards promoting optimal health and positive lifestyle changes, foster positive attitudes towards themselves and others, and facilitate the development of critical and logical thinking skills. Learning Outcomes Acquire relevant skills, concepts and information for the purpose of understanding how to take care of their body by maintaining good personal health and hygiene Demonstrate the ability to analyse internal and external influences that affect their health Experience a sense of positive self-esteem and importance of self-care Develop skills and knowledge that will enable them to enjoy being active and healthy throughout their lives, through opportunities to prepare healthy meal and make healthier food choices Expand logical thinking skills about healthy lifestyle practices for making healthier eating habits Opportunities to increase the value placed on physical activity for health, enjoyment, self- expression, and confidence. Organization and Design The Teenage Health curriculum is designed base on the Taba Model. This model was chosen as opposed to other models because of its student centeredness approach and its thoroughness. Additionally, its ideology is set on targeting to the needs of the students in order to gain success. Knowledge about the students needs provides information to the developer which is need to effectively develop the objectives in order to establish a sense of purpose for deciding what to include, exclude and emphasise on in the curriculum development. Tabas curriculum design process contains seven main steps whereas some models like the Tyler model only contain four steps. The steps are as follows Diagnosis of the learners educational needs, Formulating specific objectives, Selection of content based on those objectives, Organization of the content into appropriate levels and sequences, Selection of learning experiences that help the students learn the content, Organization of those learning experiences and Evaluation of whether the objectives are met. Scheduling and Time The Teenage Health curriculum is designed to be implemented over a 10 week teaching period. The completion of all the content depends on how the concepts taught is grasped by the students. For the execution of this curriculum the diagnosis of the students needs is always at the fore front bearing in mind that the students being catered to are those with varying special needs. Therefore extra time may be needed in some cases for the completion of the curriculum. Content The content of the Teenage Health curriculum is designed with the integration of three subject areas Social Studies, Food and Nutrition and Physical education. For the Social studies aspect of the curriculum topic such as Personal Hygiene will be examined and taught. With respects to the Food and Nutrition aspect of the curriculum, topics such as Healthy Eating Habits, Food groups and a balance diet, and Illnesses due to poor lifestyle practice will be taught. Finally, for the Physical Education aspect of the curriculum, topics such as exercise and the importance of rest will also be taught. These topics will be geared towards building cognitive development, logical thinking sills, social and emotional skills, critical thinking and problem solving skills, as well as make positive lifestyles choices so that they can obtain optimal health. Teenage Health Personal Hygiene-Social StudiesTopics/ConceptsObjectivesResourcesTeaching methodsLearning ActivityFormative AssessmentCaring for my body Taking a shower, combing hair, hand washing, Dressing neat and clean Develops and practice a daily routine by taking a daily bath. Wearing clean clothes Combing hair Identifies problems related to poor personal hygiene. Demonstrates ways to improve or maintain good personal hygiene practices.Computer Video on personal Hygiene Materials for dressing up Materials for grooming. Demonstration Learning Centres Role Play Educational GameView videos on how to correctly groom self. Activities in the learning centres (e.g) dressing neatly, combing hair, clipping nails. Role play, by letting students demonstrate how to do the following properly wash the face shampoo the hair take a bath. Use electronic devices play an education game where students will identify poor hygienic practices and good hygienic practices. Observation Checklist Weekly Log Topics/ConceptsObjectivesResourcesTeaching methodsLearning ActivityFormative AssessmentOral Hygiene How to correctly Why do we brush our teeth Implications of not brushing our teeth.Understands the correct way to care for the mouth by Brushing, Flossing and getting regular check-ups. Describes the implications of not caring for ones mouth.Computer Videos PostersField trip Computer assisted instructions Videos DiscussionsVisit a dental office to learn how to properly care for the mouth. Watch videos on good and poor dental hygiene. Discuss the implications of not brushing the teeth. Observation Checklist Oral Quiz Topics/ConceptsObjectivesResourcesTeaching methodsLearning ActivityAssessmentHand Washing How to wash the hands correctly. Why is important to wash the hands before eating.Recognises the importance of keeping hands clean. Demonstrate how to correct wash hand. Take responsibility for keeping hands clean Water Soap Basin Markers Bristol boardDemonstration Practical Experiences Role PlayView a demonstration of the correct way of hand washing. Participate in a class activity to show how to wash ones hand correctly. Role play how to wash hands properly. Create poster illustrating proper hand washing techniques. Maintain good personal hygiene by washing their hands before meals. Observation Checklist Oral Quiz Teenage Health Healthy Eating Habits Food and NutritionTopics/ConceptsObjectivesResourcesTeaching methodsLearning Activity Formative AssessmentThe importance of food. All living things need food for Energy Growth And protection against diseases Selecting nutritious foods Sources of food Good foods are important to health for growth, energy. A balance diet includes a variety of foods from each food group. Proteins Foods/Vitamins and Minerals Fruit and vegetables Carbohydrates Identify and name fruits and vegetables Recognizes the importance of food to living organism. Identifies a variety of foods. Selects different sources of foods. Classifies foods according to food groups. Demonstrates a knowledge of the nutritional value of each food group. Names a variety of healthy foods and explain why they are necessary for good health. Identifies a variety of healthy snacks. Recognizes the importance of a healthy breakfast. Recognizes and appreciates the importance of a balance diet. Develops healthy habits in relation to food preparation and handling. Encourages others to engage in healthy eating patterns. Sample of foods Charts Collection of pictures of foods and food labels Relevant videos Variety of foods from different food groups Chef knife Utensils Stove Variety of food stuff Cutlery Kitchen equipment Demonstration Discussions Computer assisted instructions Practical Experiences Learning Centres Role play Discussions about living things and what they eat. Field trips to Pine hill Dairy, Super markets, Market Cooking activities to prepare healthy food items. Drawing, colouring and modelling foods. View videos on diseases caused by poor eating habits. Field trip to the hospital. Participates in learning centres to learning about different food groups and learn about their benefits to the body. Taste a variety of fruits and vegetables. Prepare healthy meals. Role Play to encourage others to engage in healthy eating patterns.Observation Checklist Portfolios Teacher-Made TestPhysical Activity Physical EducationTopics/ConceptsObjectivesResourcesTeaching methodsLearning ActivityAssessmentImportance of Exercise The importance of restIdentifies the health benefits of participating in physical activities. Participates in Physical Activities Maintain a positive attitude throughout physical activities. Discuss why rest is important. Record sleeping hours. Dramatize the implications of not getting enough rest.Videos Computer Exercising equipment Log sheetsDemonstration Practical Experiences Role Play Discussion Participate in Physical Activities Watch videos about exercise and its benefits. Log amount of hours spent sleeping. Discuss with peers about the importance or exercise and rest. Discuss why rest is important with peers. Role play to demonstrate the implications of not getting enough rest.Observation Checklist Oral Quiz Assessment The role of assessment in the Teenage Health curriculum is to provide the implementers with feedback as to whether the learning and teaching experience was successful and that the objectives were met or not. It clearly states to the instructor if the students have understood the contents and what areas is in need of improvements. For this curriculum, the formative assessments tools include educational games, oral quiz, weekly logs, and observational checklist. Example of one of the Formative assessments used in this curriculum The weekly Log Have the students find a partner and keep a logbook or chart of their partners daily hygiene practices. The partners should Every day check each others face, hair, mouth, teeth, body and limbs to see if they meet the hygienic standards. Every week the groups should mutually check each other to see if they have clipped their finger- and toenails. The teacher should supervise to ensure that the daily and weekly routines of personal hygiene have been duly carried out. For the summative assessment the students will be required to produce personal portfolio contain information about all area in the Teenage health curriculum learnt. They are required to gather information by researching, using photos of themselves as evidence to show participation in activities, prepare a healthy meal and practice good personal hygiene. They are also required to discuss the benefits gained personally from doing the curriculum and stated any changes they have experienced within their lives. Identification of stakeholders The key players in the implementation of the Teenage Health curriculum includes students, teachers, principals, curriculum director, parents, and administration staffs. Students are the most important stakeholders of any given curriculum since it was designed to cater to their needs diagnosed. They should feel a sense of ownership. Once the curriculum is effective the students will most likely see the relevance of the curriculum and its benefits thus be motivated to participate in all learning activities which will bring about a positive change curbing the issues identified in the needs assessment. Teachers are the facilitator of learning and are responsible for executing the curriculum of Teenage Health. Once the curriculum is effectively executed the learning and teaching experience should arouse the interest of all students which would result in all objectives being met. The teacher is responsible to cater to all learners needs, intelligence and interest, ensuring that it is student centred, giving students the opportunity to learn by experiences. The Principal is responsible for supporting the teachers who are executing the Teenage Health Curriculum ensuring that they have all the materials and equipment needs to successfully implement the curriculum. They ensure that the educational climate is safe and conducive environment for learning and teaching to be effective. The curriculum director plays an important role in the implementation of the Teenage Health Curriculum where they are responsible to occasionally check in with the principal and teachers to ensure that the curriculum is running smoothly. They are also responsible for coordinating training opportunities for teachers so that they can be equipped with the pedagogical curricular knowledge requisite for implementation. Additionally, they are responsible for coordinating professional development seminar to increase teachers knowledge in the content area. Parents have the ability to solidify concepts taught at school by encouraging students to practice what they have learnt at school. They are to form positive relationships with immediate stakeholders of their childrens school so that what is being taught and what is expected to be practiced at home will be known to all stakeholders. The administration staff role is to provide support to the teacher by assisting with resources such as photocopies, books, stationary and record keeping. Description of dissemination According to (Ornstein Hunkins, 2009) to effective disseminate the teenage health curriculum it has to be implemented in three stages within the schools. They are as follows 1. Incrementalism- implementing the curriculum in a step by step manner gives teachers a clear understanding of the goals and objectives achieved and areas in need of improvement. The teacher will be able to reflect on the content and learning experience and attempt new tasks. The teacher will be able to make new goals for the students to enhance the learning and teaching experience for the next time. 2. Communication- in any relationship effective communication is vital in achieving progress. As it relates to Teenage Health curriculum the communication process will be vertical where the principal communicates with the teacher and horizontal where teachers communicate with each other to provide relevant information about how effective and successful the curriculum has been. They then have the opportunity to suggest ways in which improvements can be made to enhance the teaching and learning experience. Additionally, Teachers should communicate to parents the progress that has been made in the class and area in which they as parents can assist to solidify the learning experience within the students. 3. Support-Teachers require support from all stakeholders to ensure all objectives are met for the curriculum. They require professional training and necessary funding to allow the implementation to runs smoothly. Two ways in which the Teenage Health curriculum can be disseminated across other schools are by 1. Have curriculum developers, principals and teachers create a network to share ideas as to how the Teenage Health curriculum can be modified to enhance the teaching and learning experience. 2. Teachers and relevant stakeholders can share the materials and content with other colleagues for the cause of improving the health of teenagers within the society. Conclusion and Summary The Teenage Health curriculum once embraced by all stakeholders has the ability to change the lives of students in a positive way. According to (Ornstein Hunkins, 2009) they stated that, the implementation of a new curriculum requires changes in attitudes, habits, programmes, processes and learning spaces. The Teenage Health curriculum is designed to cater to students with specials needs and give them the ability to make healthier food choices, engage in physical activities, and better learn how to take care of themselves as well as how to prepare nutritious meals. Once students take ownership of the curriculum and participate in all learning activities that are geared towards their intelligence and interest the Teenage health curriculum can assist in combatting the current health issues that is affecting them. Students with special needs to learn by doing therefore, with the philosophical pedagogy of progressivism where students learn by doing students can develop lifelong experiences that will be beneficial to them in this age and the years ahead of them. In order to assess how successful the implementation of the Teenage Health Curriculum and its effectiveness on students learning and understanding, formative will be carried out periodically and at the end of the term a summative assessment in the form of a portfolio will be submitted. References Boyce, J. (2017). Childhood obesity a continuing concern regionally. Bridgetown Nation News. Foundations of America Education (n.d.). Retrieved May 21, 2018, from https// Ontario, M. o. (2015). The Ontario Health Curriculum. Retrieved May 28, 2018, from The Ontario Health Curriculum Health and Physical Education http// Ornstein, A., Hunkins, F. (2009). CurriculumFoundations,principles, and issues. Boston Pearson. Smith, G., de Zwart, M. (2010). Home Economics A Contexual Study of the Subject and Home Ec Teacher Education. Retrieved April 28, 2018, from Westbrook, R. (1991). John Dewey and American Democracy. Cornell Univ. Press. Wiles, J., Bondi, J. (2007). 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