Saeed Alhmoudi 1070332
Ahmed Almarzooqi 1070322
Saeed Alhefeiti 1066839
Fares Bassam 1065392
Ali Alzeyoudi 1066040
Mohamed alhashm 1061004
In this project we’ll be talking about drug abuse in terms of addiction, therapy, effects, medication, etc. Drugs are known all around the world for their influence on people regarding their behavior and personal lives. So what we will discuss below is how to identify certain drugs and how to stop a person from using such illicit drugs.
Drugs of abuse: anatomy, pharmacology and function of reward pathways
Drugs of abuse are very powerful reinforcers, and even in conditions of limited access (where the organism is not dependent) these drugs will motivate high rates of operant responding. This presumed hedonic property and the drugs’ neuropharmacological specificity provide a means of studying the neuropharmacology and neuroanatomy of brain reward. Three major brain systems appear to be involved in drug reward—dopamine, opioid and GABA. Evidence suggests a midbrain-forebrain-extrapyramidal circuit with its focus in the nucleus accumbens. Data implicating dopamine and opioid systems in indirect sympathomimetic and opiate reward include critical elements in both the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental areas. Ethanol reward appears to depend on an interaction with the GABAA receptor complex but may also involve common elements such as dopamine and opioid peptides in this midbrain-forebrain-extrapyramidal circuit. These results suggest that brain reward systems have a multidetermined neuropharmacological basis that may involve some common neuroanatomical elements.
Addiction Is a Brain Disease, and It Matters
Scientific advances over the past 20 years have shown that drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disease that results from the prolonged effects of drugs on the brain. As with many other brain diseases, addiction has embedded behavioral and social-context aspects that are important parts of the disorder itself. Therefore, the most effective treatment approaches will include biological, behavioral, and social-context components. Recognizing addiction as a chronic, relapsing brain disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use can impact society’s overall health and social policy strategies and help diminish the health and social costs associated with drug abuse and addiction.
One of the obvious reasons of taking drugs is addiction. Many might think addiction is just a moral problem. However, it also has neuronal factors. It is considered a chronic relapsing brain disease. According to NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse) drugs trigger permanent changes in some mechanisms of the brain. Addiction actually has more than one definition and is classified differently in terms of psychological, biological and social terms. However, researchers do agree that this phenomenon can not be entirely explained by a single model.
Reasons for drug use amongst young people
Young drug users have many motives regarding why they should take drugs and the following are the most common reasons: relaxation, intoxication, sleep deprivation, enhance an activity and to alleviate depressed mood. In a survey conducted by British Crime, 50% of respondents between 16 and 24 have used an illicit drug in any shape or form atleast once in their life. The thing with illicit drugs is it’s effect on the user’s health and the harm it causes. However the reasons for people with different situations differ, other than the 5 mentioned above there are 18 in total. For example, some cocaine users said they needed a confident boost or to enhance an activity as their reason for taking such a harmful drug.
How to overcome drugs abuse
Overcoming drugs take many forms and different procedures care depending on many factors such as nature of addicted person, and type of drugs. Drug addiction is considered as a chronic disorder described by occasional relapses and mostly, the treatment from drug addiction take a long-term process that involves multiple interventions and regular monitoring.
The first step to overcome drug abuse is motivation and support. The addicted person need support from his family and friends, when the person find the best environment and strong relation that filled with love, interested on him and believe, that make the addicted stronger and courage to resistance the impact of drugs and go throw medication.
Secondly, the medication is significant solution for addicted person that help him to overcome abusing and continuous a treatment and avoiding relapse. When the person decide and start medication the first step is detoxification which is a process that allow the body to remove all of the drugs out of the body. During this process the physician and doctors follow up the addicted with medication and measure the period of treatment that he need it taking on consideration type of medicine and nature of his body .
The next step of treatment is Cognitive behavioral therapy that works in cure the addicted Psychologically because the patient faced a lot of emotional problems and feel almost of the time anxiety and depression. In one article I found that this type is most important stage of treatment “Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, one type of behavioral therapy, can play a major role in helping a person manage his or her drug addiction. The most successful treatment addresses each patient’s individual drug-abuse patterns and drug-related medical, psychiatric, and social problems” (nd,2009).
Furthermore, after drug cure and long period of overcoming this disorder, the detected person feel like his life goes on. The person who is overcoming drug abuse needs to find new activities, new jobs and he need to participate and interact with people and society to bring change and happiness to his life. As the person builds new habits, they will find purpose and meaning to his life and he will start thinking to something healthier and positively
1- Cannabis: (Moderation of the Effect of Adolescent-Onset Cannabis Use on Adult Psychosis by a Functional Polymorphism in the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Gene: Longitudinal Evidence of a Gene X Environment Interaction, 2005)
Cannabis is a kind of drug it used by teenagers, and it’s a modest statistical risk factor for psychotic symptoms in adulthood, for example hallucinations and delusions, moreover clinically significant schizophrenia. The cannabis users don’t suffer from psychosis.
2- Cocaine: (Medical Complications of Cocaine Abuse, 1986)
We can use it in two ways, the first way for valid medical purposes and the second way is illegal way. As a street drug.
3- Ecstasy: (Toxicity and deaths from 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“ecstasy”), 1992)
It is very dangerous and it have a lot of affective, such as fulminant hyperthermia, convulsions, disseminated intravascular coagulation, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure.
4- Hallucinogens: (Pharmacology ; Therapeutics, 2004)
Hallucinogens (psychedelics) are some material and it affective on alter perception, mood, and a host of cognitive processes.
5- Methamphetamine: (Drug Monitoring and, 2003)
Methamphetamine is an artificial medicine is usually made in illegal laboratories, it’s among a group of drugs called amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS).
Drug treatment (https://www.drugabuse.gov, 2018)
We have a lot of treatment drug addiction, for example:
• behavioral counseling
• medical devices and applications used to treat withdrawal symptoms or deliver skills training
• evaluation and treatment for co-occurring mental health issues such as depression and anxiety
• long-term follow-up to prevent relapse
How are devices and medications affective in drug addiction treatment?
Devices and medications can be used to manage withdrawal symptoms, prevent relapse, and treat co-occurring conditions.
Drug abuse in medicine
First, many presidents viewed the governing administration for drugs must be too harsh for people in drugs and it must advise people about the dangers of drugs. Some people use drugs within the limits of health treatment and cannot rely on another medication because of the strong disease in the body, such as broken bones and a broken spine and chronic pain and strong nerves. There are many diseases in which drugs must be used for treatment and endurance of pain. Drug addicts are trying to get drugs in pharmacies and this work is illegal. Because many people will take themselves into addiction and unwillingness to stop and lead to an increased incidence of heart attacks and high mortality due to drug use
Second, the wrong way of using drugs remains a key health problem in many nations. The study shows that 550 medicines of 20 health departments at many levels throughout Hadhramaut governorate, Yemen. The research shows that a mean of 2.8 (SD 0.2) drugs was ordered per medicine, with a low rate of prescribing drugs by general fame (39.2%). The relationship of drugs for medicines was 66.2%, for injectable drugs 46.0% and for vitamins/tonics 23.6%. Other standard references to social drug information were less available. (Bashrahil,2010). Drugs in medicine have benefits and disadvantages. For example, if a person is sick and taking a drug that has little or no harm, after a period of treatment, the individual will become addicted and want more of this drug.
Third, This research to take a part of the amount to which 50 teenagers taking wraparound treatment and ordered psychotropic medication for various psychiatric disorders report that they would continue using medication if the choice was only their own (termed “medicine responsibility”)their personal experiences of uses medicine and we found that largest teenagers (62%) would discontinue medication; those “less effective” children held more likely to report many negative medication perceptions and experiences in open-ended problems, related to “committed” children. Multivariate analysis indicated that significant correlates of commitment to medication The results reinforce the importance of addressing youths’ concerns about drugs and maximizing their support in practice choice-planning.
Nonmedical Use of Drugs
Drug is a chemical used for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease (s) of humans. In the process, drugs interact at molecular level in the body and produce beneficial and harmful effects. Certain drugs affect the human behavior. Some drugs are always taken in excess to experience euphoria, which lead to non?medical use of drugs. Proper and judicious prescription of drugs makes a complex surgery possible and relieves pain to the patient and for millions of people. However non?medical use of drugs such as opioids, central nervous system (CNS) depressants and stimulants is a serious health problem. Use of these drugs can lead to drug abuse and addiction, characterized by compulsive drug seeking. The therapeutic dose does not cause addiction but inappropriate use or misuse can lead to drug addiction. The illegal drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and nicotine cause health hazards as the individual’s misuse them.
The non?medical use of drugs has become a common trend among teenagers around the world and particularly in certain underdeveloped countries. The misuse of prescribed drug may be most commonly used as drugs of abuse in elderly. Prescription medication is about three times more frequent in elderly than in general population and they do not comply with the direction of usage many times. In general men and women have similar rate of non?medical use of drugs.
Drugs and crime
Drug law violations and other crimes related to substance abuse incur dire costs in terms of both financial outlay and human suffering. This review of the current professional literature addresses the identification of risk factors and the longitudinal course of addiction and criminal behavior. Results indicate that neither criminally active drug users nor drug users in general are monolithic groups in terms of manifestations of criminal behavior. Drug use and criminal activity are depicted as mutually facilitative behaviors, with research outcomes tending to convey that although drug addiction does not turn nonviolent criminals into violent criminals, active addiction does increase the frequency of criminal activity.
At the end, drug abuse is a common problem that is in need of medication and therapy. Despite how you got into such a habit or which drug type you’re using there’s always medication and procedures to stop this bad habit.
Dikshith, Prakash V. Diwan. (30 May 2003) Nonmedical Use of Drugs. https://doi.org/10.1002/0471426075.ch14
R. Nordstrom, A. Dackis (December 1, 2011) Drugs and Crime. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/009318531103900407
Bashrahil, K. A. (2010). Indicators of rational drug use and health services in hadramout, Yemen/Indicateurs d’usage rationnel des médicaments et des services de santé dans le gouvernorat d’hadramout (yémen). Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 16(2), 151-5. Retrieved from http://adezproxy.adu.ac.ae/docview/504660033?accountid=26149
Moses, T. (2011). Adolescents’ commitment to continuing psychotropic medication: A preliminary investigation of considerations, contradictions, and correlates.Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 42(1), 93-117. doi:http://dx.doi.org.adu-lib-database.idm.oclc.org/10.1007/s10578-010-0209-y
Dunbar, D., Kushner, H., ; Vrecko, S. (2010). Drugs, addiction and society. BioSocieties, 5(1), 2-7. doi:10.1057/biosoc.2009.10
Boys, A., Marsden, J., ; Strang, J. (2001). Understanding reasons for drug use amongst young people: A functional perspective. Health Education Research, 16(4), 457-469. Retrieved December 15, 2000.
G. F. Koob is Professor m the Department of Neuropharmacology. Scripps Research Institute, 10666 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Leshner, A. I. (2017). Addiction Is a Brain Disease, and It Matters. National Institutes of Health.
Medical Complications of Cocaine Abuse, 1495-1500. (1986)
Drug Monitoring and. (2003). Clinical Chemistry, 121–132.
Medical Complications of Cocaine Abuse. (1986). Medical Complications of Cocaine Abuse, 1495-1500.
Moderation of the Effect of Adolescent-Onset Cannabis Use on Adult Psychosis by a Functional Polymorphism in the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Gene: Longitudinal Evidence of a Gene X Environment Interaction. (2005, 5 15). pp. 1117–1127.
Pharmacology ; Therapeutics. (2004). Hallucinogens, 131-181.
Toxicity and deaths from 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“ecstasy”). (1992). Toxicity and deaths from 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“ecstasy”), 384-387.
• NIDA. (2018, January 17). Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/treatment-approaches-drug-addiction on 2018, May 28
• THE TRUTH ABOUT “REHAB” ; DRUG ADDICTION. (2009, Apr). Scholastic Choices, 24, 24-26. Retrieved from http://adezproxy.adu.ac.ae/docview/208793899?accountid=26149