PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Music, art, and dance have played a huge part in our history. Throughout the years, it has evolved into a whole new level of performance the world has ever seen. Theater arts, opera and ballet are only few forms of multimedia that made a big impact in showcasing Filipino talents.
In the written text of Gascoigne (2001), the history of theater, it is unlikely to anyone in the human society to deny the pleasure and excitement of dancing and singing. The first purpose of dance is said to be a ritual in calming the spirit of the nature or accompanying a rite of passage. Indispensable in dancing, rhythm is also a basic element of music. It is as natural as a beat of rhythm of a dance using sticks. The movement of the dance becomes natural with the rhythmic chant. In the service of tradition and rituals, dance and music have always been partners. Several kinds of drama present the rituals of primitive tribes. While musical instruments provide a rhythm, and members of the tribe joins in a communal dance, there is often also a dramatic figure that is the center of attention. In mask and costume, the figure is strikingly fierce or mysterious, an unseen actor impersonates a spirit which either threatens or secures the fortunes of the tribe.
Theater, a word that was derived from the Greek “theaomi” which means “to see”, could be considered as one major art form that connects together all other art forms -ranging from painting and sculpture, installation art, music, dance, literature and even computer arts- as one production. Theater is not essentially a literary art, though it has been so taught in some universities and schools. The literary side of a theatrical production works most effective when it is subordinated to the histrionic. Acting, singing, and dancing have made the strongest impact among audiences. Performance if a must as it reveals the intention and meaning of the text through skillful acting in an environment that is designed with the appropriate measurement of beauty or what we call visual impact. (Chaillet, Davis, & Guthrie, 2014)
The part of theater arts in the Philippines started indigenous drama. These are the rituals, verbal games, songs and dances. With the influence of Spanish, comedia and zarzuela entered the field of drama. It is used as a representation of Christianity. Theater in the Philippines is as varied as the cultural traditions and the historical influence that shaped it through the centuries. Furthermore, drama created an impact of the Filipinos’ lives in depicting rituals and fulfilling their customs and beliefs.
As Graza-Magboo (2015) stated in her report on Philippine Opera, The emergence of Filipino opera also started to take place in the country. Opera is also an art form that is usually perform in a dramatic work incorporating many elements of spoken theater such as acting, scenery, costumes and choreography. Accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, the opera’s dialogues are not spoken but sung. Opera is a part of Western classical music form and tradition that started in Italy during the sixteenth century and soon spread to Europe and other countries.
This form of art spread in the Philippines during the nineteenth century when instruments such as virtuosi’s, opera singers, and Spanish Zarzuela performers set foot. There are elements that introduced the popular themes of romance, deceit, murder, vendetta (revenge) and other elements of human frailty that became the Filipino viewers’ favorites. During this period, local theaters and early Philippine Operas were established. There were also famous works that became the all-time favorite of the Filipino audience. The La Loba Negra, a three act Filipino Opera, which meant The Black She-Wolf is an example. The first acts were based on history attributed to Fr. Jose Burgos of GomBurZa. The story takes place in seventeenth century of Spanish rule in the Philippines. It was about the tragic assassination of Spanish Governor-General Bustamante. He was admired for his planned reforms in the colonial administration. It focused on the bitter reaction and planned vendetta (revenge) by his wife Dona Luisa on the religious perpetrators (Graza-Magboo, 2015)
The medium of ballet is to interpret novels, folktales and stories that provide visual excitement as the characters do not speak but communicates through various body movements. Ballet, a dance-based art form that combines music, movement, and costume to tell emotional stories, had a bad reputation. It was seen by far too many people as something esoteric, un-relatable, and soft. Basically, people think ballet is froo-froo. However, it took only the smallest glimpse into the inner workings of ballet to realize that this is one of the most grueling and demanding forms of not only art but also athleticism in the modern world. (Muscato, 2003)
In the article written by Villaruz (2004), Western theatrical dancing took root in Manila in the 1920s and 1930s. The first two Philippine professional ballet companies rose to ambitiously join the rest of the world. The first was to distinguished contemporary of the greatest danseur noble of our century, Erik Bruhn, at the Royal Danish Ballet and London’s Metropolitan Ballet; later he founded the Royal New Zealand Ballet. The second was sister to the legendary virtuoso, acclaimed Ballet master and People’s Artist, Asaf Messerer. Ahead by a few months, Hariraya Ballet (then cancelled Dance Company) made its debut at the Rizal Theater in 1986. After the small but much used stage at the Far Eastern University Auditorium of the 1950s, Rizal became the theater in Metro Manila where companies from London, Paris, New York and Melbourne performed. Hariraya’s debut was soon followed in July by an equal claim to professionalism by Dance Theatre Philippines on the same stage. It was in the 1970s when the Dance Theatre had a little projection at the nationally recognized center, but most active at the Rizal Park and briefly for the Ballet Federation of the Philippines-organized annual festivals and special full-evening productions (1976-1979). Aside from dancing to school and park audiences, Dance Theatre visited Britain twice (1975 and 1979). More active in the 1980’s, it serves the different campuses of the University of the Philippines (U.P) throughout the island (except Mindanao). Dance Theatre consistently produced works by Filipino choreographers. Immediately after, it premiered an all-Filipino program with works by Borromeo, Elejar, Radaic, and Layag to all-Filipino musical compositions.
A historic landmark was the first three-act ballet in the Philippines, Mir-i-nisa. This was based on a short story by National Artist Jose Garcia Villa, and jointly choreographed by Borromeo and Radaic to new music by Eliseo Pajaro. This was part of the inaugural season of the CCP in 1969. The company was augmented by dancers from Cebu and the folkloric Bayanihan and Folkloric Filipino companies. It made for an impressive spectacle, with the debuts of young dancers in Mary Anne Garcia and Nini Gener in the title-role, paired by the rivals in the story, Odon Sabarre and Tony Fabella. (Villaruz, 2004)
The youth today have been greatly influenced by the modern technology. They often misinterpret theater arts as entertainment only. But, theatre can be so much more than just sequined clothes, pretty songs and graceful movements. As a matter of fact, it is often seen as the perfect vehicle to provide education regarding social issues, even inspires social and political change. In relation, Ballet, a dance-based art form that combines music, movement, and costume to tell emotional stories, had a bad reputation. It was seen by far too many people as something esoteric, un-relatable, and soft. Basically, people think ballet is froo-froo. Same as the opera, because of the passionate singing and acting, people sometimes think it is somehow funny. In the present day, only few could tell that they have knowledge or they are familiar with theater arts, opera and ballet. As an individual, it is essential to protect the traditional media like theatre from its extinction. In actuality, the new media is not new rather it is an advancement and transformation of existing media.. People may not know this but each and every medium contributes towards the shift of more advanced and technological media environments. Social change is unstoppable and compulsory part of any given society.
Posted by Tom Jacobs (2018), Arts organizations search for the missing audience, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) has been dutifully tracking the gradual decline in the attendance at cultural events. As part of a series of reports released, the federal agency decided to augment its latest update by focusing on two key questions: How many people seriously have considered attending play, concert, or art exhibit, only to finally pass? And why did they end up staying home?
There are ideas surfacing in taking art to people and how to stop in inflation of attendance. It is more likely making time in their busy schedules and providing a more friendly concerts and exhibits to individuals. The NEA (2012) reports that only 33 percent of America adults attended one of the “benchmark” arts- classical music, jazz, opera, theater, ballet, or visits to an art museum or gallery. That is down from 39 percent a decade earlier. There was a separate study that uses data coming from the general social survey that included the aforementioned questions about non-attendance at art events. 45.6% among the respondents have been reported to attend a live music, theatre or dance performance in the past years. That more broadly worded question included attendance at pop, rock, or hip-hop concerts (Jacobs, 2018)
Jacobs (2018) also wrote, “Following a sharp decline in overall arts attendance that occurred from 2002 to 2008,” one NEA (2012) report states, “participation rates held steady from 2008 to 2012″for classical music, jazz, and dance performances. However, ticket sales for non-musical plays continued to slip further during those final four years, and attendance at stage musicals- one of the few art forms that had been holding steady earlier in the decade- declined from 2008 to 2012. “There’s no tidy answer as to why this is happening, ” Suni Iyengar (2018), NEA director of research and analysis, says. “There’s a lot of competition for leisure activities.” Iyengar (2018) pointed to two trends occurring simultaneously. First, both the elderly and Hispanics are growing as a percentage of population. “Both groups have a growing Hispanic population, the total number of tickets sold to Latin, Spanish, or salsa music programs “saw substantial declines” between 2002 and 2012. Second, the report documents a decline in attendance among demographic groups that have traditionally formed the backbone of arts audiences (and donors). “Highly educated people are going (to arts, events) at much lower levels than they did to years ago,” He added.
Of course, all this coincides with the rise of the smartphones and e-reader, which have become highly convenient ways to enjoy (and share) both music and written texts. But not all that many users are reading Shakespeare, or even John Grisham. “The percentage of adults reading a play, poem, or novel dropped to 2002 levels (47 percent) after increasing to 50 percent in 2008,” the NEA reports. The state-by-state statistics also yielded an interesting additional piece of information: Exposure to the arts in childhood is a very strong predictor of participation in the arts as an adult. (Jacobs, 2018)
Added by Jacobs (2018), It is crucial to get people in the culture habit while they’re young. That realization makes the following findings still more troublesome: “Parents with children under age six at home are significantly less likely to attend arts over all, and they are especially less likely to visit art museums.” Sociologists Aaron Reeves of the University of Oxford reports most forms of arts participation are strongly correlated not with class, but rather with education. He found that in large sample of the English population, those with higher incomes were actually less likely to be active participants in the arts. “Arts participation, like other forms of cultural engagement, remains stratified,” he writes in the journal Sociology, “but it is not as responsive to those ‘status concerns’ shaping cultural consumption. Arts participation, unlike arts consumption and cultural engagement generally, is not closely associated with either social class or social status. “Reeves found education was “a strong predictor of the like-hood of being an arts participant.” After adjusting for the influence of family background, he found that, compared to people who did not participate in higher education, those who had earned a degree were four to five times more likely to play a musical instrument , or be involved in painting, photography, or dance.
The ways of teaching has changed a lot over the years. Instead of searching on the students’ textbooks, they have been using gadgets and social media to study and complete their activities and requirements. Because of these changes, learning theater arts, opera and ballet became so rare. The topic of arts began in primary school in which the teachers began teaching the basics of arts. But as the students grow older, their lesson about arts became minimal, thus creating a problem in having familiarity and knowledge about Philippine’s theater arts, opera and ballet.
Indeed, these form of arts played a role in our country. Different talents and skills were discovered through these performances. Theater Arts, Opera and Ballet were a huge thing during the nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Although social media has made its way to the modern world, children being caught up in the world of mass media and pop culture to cultivate a taste for the arts, these kinds of arts should not be forgotten for it has also created history in the Philippines. The main problem that this research will be focusing is the situation of the theater arts, opera and ballet among Filipino youth. The subjects that the young students are discussing in class are narrowed to only small details. Because of this situation, the supports for the Philippine performing groups are not that well-known. As Abinuman (2017) once wrote, “what’s wrong with Filipino art and why is it underappreciated?”, these questions also left a deep impression that aside from the Filipino visual arts posted on social media, people also neglect the fact that there are other forms of art that is as well underappreciated. A weakness is that because it is underappreciated, it has low revenues. The low revenue of the performance group is a weakness because it hinders the company from doing its core competencies. The company without the proper financial stability cannot work improving its performances because it’ll be too busy finding money for business.
In the Philippines, people have already given up on doing arts to put on a premium financial stability. The often ask the questions “what will you do with your art career? Will it really feed you and put a rook over your head?” The Filipinos hasn’t entirely been put on a high pedestal in years. Artist like Lea Salongga, Choreographer like Lisa Macuja Elizalde, Composer like Ryan Cayabyab and others will always be remembered in books and televisions because there works and achievements will always remain familiar. More recent performers are often shunned, saying their work is unoriginal or not meeting a certain standard or could be not as good as the western counterparts. It is seen as if these are only limited to a certain template, and cannot be more, cannot be as interesting, cannot be worth out time. Another problem that can be seen is how we limited out artists. Often times, original unconventional ideas are not accepted since that is not what people are used to. Some corporations think that if this idea is not the usual thing that people gobble up, it is not worth the risk. We strip the artist of its freedom of expression, forcing him/her in making outputs just because it sells.
Sometimes, our artists feel too discouraged to create content, choosing instead to take a job that they think can give them a steady income. So many have the potential to earn with the quality of the content they produce, but since we lean more towards other more “in” products, they are barely seen. Most of the artists here are fairly new, not as known across the online world or the real world, just starting out and following their hearts. These are people who pour out so much of themselves in what they do; leaving pieces of them in the things they create because these are a reflection of them and their thoughts, viewpoints, and feelings. These are people who often go unrecognized, but still do what they love to do.
There will always be those who create even if they know they won’t benefit much from it. There are theatre people who perform entire plays even for the smallest of audiences just to keep theatre alive. There is a singer writing her own lyrics and performing in cafes and small bars for even a few tips, a group of painters who create murals for school buildings just so the school doesn’t look as dreary and writers who publish short stories for children to enjoy. These people are not promised fame or fortune, but they still go on, since they believe that art should be shared with the world.
This research will be able to shed light to Philippines magnificent performances of opera and ballet.
Statement of the Problem
Generally, this study aims to evaluate the knowledge and appreciation of the Senior High School on Philippine’s Theater Arts, Opera and Ballet. Specifically, this research seeks to answers the following questions:
1.)What is the profile of the respondents students in terms of:
2.)What level does the senior high school students belong to in terms of appreciation and knowledge about Philippine Opera and Ballet?
3.)Is there a significant difference between the respondents’ level of knowledge and appreciation on Philippine’s Opera and Ballet when grouped according to profile?
4.)How can the perceived factors (leisure activities, technology, social media and Financial Stability) affect the perception of students on Opera and Ballet?3
Statement of the Null Hypotheses
There is no significant difference between the respondents’ level of knowledge and appreciation on Philippine’s Opera and Ballet when grouped according to profile.
The figure below used the IV-DV conceptual framework. The framework shows the conceptual framework of the research study. The researchers seek to determine the level of perception of the Senior High School of St. Mary’ University. This conceptual framework leads to the comprehension of the processes and aims of the study. The Independent variable included the profile of the senior high school students which are the age, sex and strand. The dependent variable included the level of perception which is the appreciation and knowledge.
Figure 1. Paradigm of the Study
It is important to understand why schools should implement arts education in the first place. The basic knowledge of the art starts with the youth in school. They either learn or experience. The more that the students learn, at a very young age, the more knowledge and experiences they acquire. With the factors affecting their learning environment, it is essential for the youth to start learning arts. (Wisley, 2014)
Mallory Elver (2017) wrote in his thesis that in this field of performing arts, these provide a creative escape for children, introducing them to the imaginative worlds of theatre, music and dance. Their exposure to performing arts at an early stage provided the children fond memories that could be cherish for a lifetime. Learning performing arts creates a powerful positive impact on the children in various ways. Unknown to many, performing arts impact on youth has been a topic of examination for years. His research undoubtedly exemplifies that the arts benefit youth.
Scope and Delimitation
The respondents of this study included all the strands of Senior High School students of the St. Mary’s University grade eleven (11) and twelve (12):
•Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS)
•Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)
•Accountancy and Business Management (ABM)
•Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
•Arts and Design (AD)
•Home Economics (HE)
•General Academic Strand (GAS)
The respondents are ranging from 16-19 years old. The study analyzed the students that are randomly selected. The research data is based from the answers of the students who will be taking the survey prepared by the researchers.
Significance of the Study
This study aimed to seek answers about the appreciation, knowledge and familiarity, of the Senior High School Students of St. Mary’s University about theater arts, opera and ballet. This research gives significance to the following:
To the Students, the result of this research could help the researchers to know if the students know something about the Philippine’s theater arts, opera and ballet and to put their familiarity, knowledge, personal experiences and appreciation into evaluation. This study may be able to contribute knowledge to the students about Philippine’s theater arts, opera and ballet.
To the Faculty, this research may be a helpful tool in teaching their students about the various forms of arts. The contribution by this research should help them share their knowledge about Philippine’s theater arts, opera and ballet.
To the Philippine Theater Arts, Opera and Ballet groups, this research may help them promote originally made performances, help preserve the beautiful way of art through theater arts, opera and ballet, expose the youth and show appreciation to talents and skills of the people behind the stage.
To the Community, the result of this study would serve as a promotion for everyone in the community to show them the beauty of performing originally made Filipino stories on the stage.
To the Future Researchers, this will help them use this research as their basis for their future study and can continue furthermore this research.
Definition of Terms
The terms in this study are operationally defined in order to give the reader a clearer understanding on how they are used in the study.
oOrchestra – Led by a conductor, it is a group of musicians who play a variety of instrument together in an organized manner.
oHistrionic – overly theatrical or melodramatic in character or style. Excessively theatrical or dramatic in character or style.
oOpera- A drama set to music and is made up of vocal pieces accompanied by the orchestra with its dialogues being sung not spoken.
oBallet- An artistic way of interpreting a story through precise music and formalized set steps and gestures. Creates an expression through graceful and flowing patterns of movements.
oAppreciation- The recognition and enjoyment of the good qualities of something.
oTheater arts- A greek word theaomai meaning to see, is an art forms that is acted, danced or sung and creates a coherent and significant sense of drama.
oKnowledge- Facts, information, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject.
REVIEW OF RELATED STUDY
To begin, it is important to understand why schools should implement arts education in the first place. What are the connections between children’s exposure to the performing arts and their intellectual and social development? According to numerous studies, the performing arts create a powerful positive impact on children in various ways. It is important for the youth to see professional performances so that they get to see what a polished, finished project looks like compared to a second grade talent show. Both in-school visits and field trips are important. The great thing about a field trip is the students also get the feel of an actual performance space rather than a school cafeteria stage. The familiarity of the art starts with the youth in school. They either learn or experience. (Wisley, 2014)
A Low-stress learning opportunity at a young age is important. Wisley (2014) find that students that get to take a workshop or a small session in the performing arts learn whether or not they have an interest in it, rather than signing up to be in a production that might have more stress value on it. These small workshops and sessions help students gain an interest without the pressure of performing. Those children that find an interest in it will start joining higher impact classes to start working on their skills and technique. Those who don’t have an interest will find something else but will not begrudge the experience since it is short.
The purpose of Theatre Appreciation is to increase students’ understanding, appreciation, and critical perceptions of the theatrical event. Readings and lectures will focus on the elements of theatrical practice; artists and innovators of theatre throughout history; and on the theatre’s development as an art form and a social phenomenon; participation in class forum discussions and sharing of critiques and short reports will offer avenues to explore students’ individual theatrical interests; and optional attendance at theatrical events will offer firsthand experience in theatre arts. Young people who attend live theatre performances are also better at recognizing and understanding what other people think and feel, according to this study. This research distinguishes itself as concrete support for the fact that exposure to the arts creates a major positive impact on young people. (Hitt ; Kraybill, 2014).
Students develop socially, emotionally and behaviorally. Social challenges observed at the beginning of the First Stage visits included low cooperation/teamwork, being shy and/or withdrawn, disrespect for authority and inability to follow directions. These obstacles were overcome by the program’s emphases on self-confidence, cooperation and teamwork, respect for authority and each other, and listening skills/improved attentiveness. Emotional challenges initially observed included anger management issues, low coping skills, acting out at inappropriate times and difficulty applying learning. The Literacy Residencies helped repair these emotional issues by teaching coping skills, reducing anger, developing creative reasoning and problem solving abilities and nurturing imagination. Finally, behavioral problems originally encountered included propensity to use violence to solve problems, difficulty focusing and maintaining attention, low attendance, bad language, bullying and gang mentality. By emphasizing focus, empathy, community mindset, tolerance, respect/mutual identification and flexibility, the program combatted behavioral issues.
In an Education Week article, Greene (2014) and his team explain how their study exemplifies the ideal method of research:
“By comparing outcomes for students who had these arts experiences—by chance—with the outcomes of those who did not, we can identify with confidence what the arts do for young people. The approach we took, which is typical in medical research, creates treatment and control groups that are, on average, identical in their backgrounds and prior interests, with only chance determining the distinction between the two groups. Therefore, any subsequent differences we observed in the students were caused by…seeing live theater, not a result of preexisting differences among them.”
In addition by the National Core Arts Standards, the status of arts education in federal law (and, more importantly, in American schools) has also evolved over time. While arts education has been subject to less data-gathering than subjects such as mathematics and English language arts, we do know enough to present a relatively accurate picture of the status of arts education in today’s schools. However, it also revealed extreme inequities in students’ access to arts education, indicating that arts education is not universally available, is too often limited to music and art, and is inconsistent across grade levels.
Theater art has been misinterpreted by people a lot of times. They refer to theater arts as only a form of entertainment or hobby. And because of the modern technology making its way to this generation, the youth are exposed to the world of knowledge. Protecting the traditional media such as theater from extinction is very much essential. In actuality, new media is not new rather it is an advancement and transformation of existing media. Every medium contribute to a shift towards to a more advanced and technological media environment. Theaters can be much more than just a plain entertainment, more than costumes and pretty songs. In fact, it is a perfect vehicle to provide education about current social issues and to inspire social and political change.
The use of performing arts is where the artists use their voices and bodies to convey a message or artistic expression. It is contrast to visual arts that uses paint, canvas and medium objects. Performing arts have ways in expressing a feeling, emotion, opinion or tastes through the means of performance like theatre, speech, dance, music and more. Performing arts are basically arts or a skill that requires a performance in front of an audience. All forms of art have certain aspects that can be found in all of them. The message behind art forms might be the same but in relaying it is different. The performance can also display cultural stories as much as visual art does. Song and dance are usually the main ingredients in cultural tradition. (Mallory E., 2017)
In the study of Maria Delimata (2013), it was mentioned that the Filipino contemporary culture (in this case also theatre) could be seen as a great example for anyone who would like to speak about the postcolonial identity of the nation. Because of the complex history of the Philippines, the country cannot be considered in a binary differentiation: “Asian” vs. “Western”. According to Sir Anril Pineda Tiatco in Situating Philippines Theatricality in Asia, we should not forget that this country is not only amalgamation of pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial cultures. There is no point in calling for the “authenticity” or the “pureness” of the postcolonial theatre forms or the accusation of being polluted by foreign influence as long as the major aim of the Filipino makers is to redefine their own artistic identity. Delimata (2013) proposed the distinction between the group identity and the individual identity, the awareness of the fact that both stay in constant dependency and each negotiates its own importance. If a theatre group is concerned more about social or political issues, the individual identity of an actor is not anymore easy to achieve. The artistic freedom does not have to be limited. It could be observed similar situations in other postcolonial countries and that the Filipino case deserves particular attention despite of its double colonial identity.
In this field of performing arts, these provide a creative escape for children, introducing them to the imaginative worlds of theatre, music and dance. Their exposure to performing arts at an early stage provided the children fond memories that could be cherish for a lifetime. For Mallory Elver (2014), his goal in writing this thesis is to discover ways that arts advocates can convince policy makers to establish more arts education in schools. Teaching strategies has changed a lot over the centuries. Instead of using the student’s textbooks, the use of gadgets and social media emerged in completion of activities and requirements. The learning of theater arts, opera and ballet became rare because of these changes. All of this coincides with the increase use of smartphones and e-readers, which is very much highly convenient ways to enjoy and share both music and written texts. Not all users are reading Shakespeare or even John Grisham. Exposure to the arts in childhood is a very strong predictor of participation in the arts as an adult. It is crucial to influence people in the culture habit while they’re young. Parents with children under six at home are significantly less likely to attend arts over all, and they are less likely to visit art museums. (Jacobs, 2018)
In the first place, it is important to understand why schools should implement arts education. What connection does the exposure of the children in performing arts in their intellectual and social development? According to a research written by Mallory Elver (2017), learning performing arts creates a powerful positive impact on the children in various ways. Unknown to many, performing arts impact on youth has been a topic of examination for years. In a study of the National Educational Longitudinal Survey in 1997, they provided reliable insight into child development, as it examined more than 25,000 students over the course of ten years (Catterall and Chapleau, 2014).
Elvor (2017) stated that the researchers James S. Catteral and Richard Chapleau placed key findings into three separate categories; (a.) the research showed a correlation between involvement in the arts and academic success. In a ten-year study, positive students’ development grew even more evident over time and students from low socio-economic status were also found with academic achievement, (b.) findings proved a positive relationship between music and mathematics achievement. Students that played musical instrument through high school were significantly more proficient at math than their non-instrument-playing student counterparts. (c.) finally researchers place finding into a third category: theatre arts and human development. The students’ involvement in plays, musicals, drama club and acting classes yielded various results, including the following: improvement in reading proficiency, growth in self-concept and motivation, increased empathy and tolerance for others. These results held true for youth from families of low socio-economic status as well. (Catteral & Chapleau, 2014)
Elver’s (2017) research undoubtedly exemplifies that the arts benefit youth. It is a longitudinal study that compares a control group of students who did not participate in the arts to an experimental group of students who partook in artistic activities. The evidence is made to be credible as the fact stands that both groups were evaluated at an early age and re-examined at the end of high school. His research findings proved that students who participate in arts attain invaluable personal growth that their non-artistic counterparts do not develop. In addition to Elver’s (2017) study, Lisa Phillips who is a CEO of Canada’s Academy of Stage and Studio arts, is an author as well as an arts and leadership educator whose work strongly support arts education. In Lisa Phillip’s book The Artistic Edge: 7 skills children need to succeed in an increasingly right brain world, explore how the arts develop leadership skills needed for children to grow into successful adults was featured in a Washington Post Article listing the top ten skills that children learn from arts. These are; creativity, confidence, problem solving, perseverance, focused, nonverbal communication, receiving constructive feedback, collaboration, dedication and accountability.
University of Arkansas Department of Education (2014) researchers found that school field trips to live theatre performances enhance literary knowledge, tolerance and empathy among students. The great thing about a field trip is the students also get the feel of an actual performance space rather than a school cafeteria stage. They found out that reading watching film versions of Hamlet and A Christmas Carol did not produce the increase in knowledge that students gained when they attended the live theatre plays. Additionally, young people who attend live theatre performances are also better at recognizing and understanding what other people feel and think. The research itself distinguish concrete support for the fact that exposure to the arts creates a major positive impact on young people. In Elver’s (2017) study, students were placed in two random groups by lottery system: a control group of students who did not attend the live performances and experimental group of students who saw the plays. And because these students were place on random groups, the results are definitely credible. There is another ten-year old study by researchers Heath and Roach who examined 124 youth-based out-of-school organizations in economically disadvantaged communities in both rural and urban locations. The researchers found out that those students who participated in these organizations’ programs did not only developed skills in arts but they also have developed important life skills and gained valuable experience such as;
oPractice in using their imaginations in realistic context with limited resources, learning from their failures and success.
oThe students have opportunities to converse with adult mentors and learn from them. They developed the skills in decision-making and strategy-building.
oThe results showed a dramatic increase in their use of complex language specifically in syntactic complexity, hypothetical reasoning and questioning approaches.
oThe students also showed a result in developed linguistic habits, language skills and artistic technique both at school and outside.
oStudents showed awareness by combining their talents and abilities they could use to contribute in their communities.
oStudents participating in arts organizations’ programs have higher self-esteem that those who do not involve themselves.
The researchers Heath and Roach concluded that in a while, organizations, not only artistic but religious, athletic, service-oriented, etc.-provide mentoring relationships, collaborative group dynamics and a balance of play and work, only arts organizations produce allows students opportunities for imaginative creativity. Arts-centered organizations for youth produces outcomes in skill building for youth that transfers into involvement in school, work, home and civic life. “Any exposure to arts at younger ages helps to instill a love for the arts. It is important for youth to see professional performances so that they get to see what is polished, finished projects looks like compared to a second grade talent show according to Matt Wisley, a student services coordinator for Master of Arts in Arts administration at Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs and Former School director at Windfall Dancers, Inc. in Bloomington. Gail Bray, Drama Instructor at stages Bloomington said:
“I doubt that there’s one best way for instilling a love of the performing arts in youth. All of the things mentioned have a positive impact since they expose children to theatre and the performing arts. Perhaps there are two parts to this: developing a passion for performing is one and creating a passion for supporting live theatre and the performing arts is the other. The other method I can think of…is participating in productions, choirs, dance performances, etc. Or maybe even when children come across the performing arts unexpectedly as in the flash mob performances that were popular a while back or guerilla theatre events.”
Any positive introduction to the performing arts can ignite an interest that can be develop dramatic intellectual and social growth thus, there is no single best means of instilling a love of the performing arts in youth provided that these initial introductions to the arts do not put stress on children.
Unlike other areas of study like science, research in arts cannot be analyzed very much in terms of quantifiable data. It based heavily more on quality. Countless schools dedicate the majority of their time, money and energy to strengthening core curricular and meeting state academic standards. Granted, school subjects such as science and mathematics are worthy of such resources however, the performing arts deserve far more attention than they currently receive from schools. Students who participate in the performing arts gain invaluable life skills that cannot be learned through current core academia. If the students today receives opportunities to experience live performances, learn from teaching artists who visited their classrooms and participate in arts classes outside of school, these young people can attain outstanding personal growth that they may never gain otherwise.
In this chapter, it presents related written journals and articles that studies and researches further to understand and support the significance that society and individuals place on theater arts, opera and ballet. It also has the history and some facts about the topic.
Art is present in so many of the places we go to and the things we do. We might scroll past most social media posts that we see, without thinking how each photo or video has several elements in it that make it look appealing to people. We weave our paths through the city every day, and we rarely see how the buildings are carefully designed and how the billboards are strategically done. We use and consume so many products per day, yet we fail to really appreciate the way they are presented to us. We listen to music, we appreciate the aesthetics of a post, we read books, watch endless videos on our suggested list. But how much of it do we really pay attention to?
In this chapter, this explains how much big of an impact arts has made especially to the youth. Not only did it affect the academic factor but as well as the behavioral factor. Being immerse into arts can create imaginative, innovative, calm and more. The researches related to arts supplies informations that helped the researchers understand the problems and aside from that, understand the situation that theatre arts, opera and ballet is in, in this generation.
Aside from the researches presented relating to opera and ballet, there are still some areas these researches lack. There are only few researches that tackle about the struggles of a performer and what they have to go through to be on the stage. The facts about the struggles are only kept as facts and not as a topic of appreciating every detail and moment a performer have to go through. In addition, aside from the struggles of a performer, there is also minimal number of researches about performers with disabilities. Most popular performers with disabilities usually are the ones who lost a limb or are battling a serious illness. Unpopular to the public, there are facts that are hidden deeper than the pretty costumes, pretty singers and dancers and enchanting stage designs. The life style, dietary, stories, costumes and trainings are not what they all seem. There are still some things that are yet to be discovered in the field of opera and ballet.
The research made use of the mix method of quantitative which is descriptive comparative, that aims to describe the answers of different respondents to compare them, and qualitative which is phenomenology approach, whose goal is to describe a “lived experience” of the phenomenon. By mixing both quantitative and qualitative research and data, the researcher gains in breadth and depth of understanding and corroboration, while offsetting the weaknesses inherent to using each approach by itself. The Qualitative method made use of the open ended questions that the respondents will answer based on their experiences. In this study, methodologies will be used to diagnose and examine the level of perception of the Senior high school students on Philippine Theater arts, opera and ballet. The techniques used will be in a form of questionnaires. The research aims to analyze and gather the data in this study that intended to identify the problem on the level of perception on Philippine opera and ballet.
Map of the research locale
St. Mary’s University Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya
online source: https://www.google.com/maps?q=map+of+st+mary%27s+university+bayombong;um=1;ie=UTF-8;sa=X;ved=0ahUKEwiph9ibovbaAhWEkJQKHWb8BywQ_AUICigB
The researcher conducted the study at Saint Mary’s University of Bayombong. It is a premier CICM catholic educational and missionary institution of learning drawn into communion by the wisdom of God, dedicated to forming persons exemplifying excellence, and Christ’s mission, owned by the Belgian missionary congregation CICM and is located at Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya. Bayombong is the center of Nueva Vizcaya. Every morning heavy traffic is the problem but it is easily accessible to all kinds of vehicles.
Respondents and Sampling Method
In this part of research, the researchers will be using the clustered random sampling method among senior high school students of different strands. Since the chosen subjects of this research will be coming from all the section coming from all different strands of senior high school, the researchers will be using the population study because the individuals or subjects of this research were known to have similar characteristics. All individuals or objects within a certain population usually have a common, binding characteristic or trait. The number of the respondents will be computed using the G-power The research aims to gain knowledge about the level of perception on Philippine Theatre Arts, Opera and Ballet.
. Research Instrument
A questionnaire will be utilized as the data gathering instrument. It is in a form of structured survey questionnaire that is created by the researchers that is consisting of three parts: the respondents’ personal data sheet, the survey for the evaluation of level of perception on theater arts, opera and ballet and the open-ended questions. The first part which is the personal data sheet includes the respondents’ sex, age and strand. The second part is an eighteen (18) item questionnaire on level of perception on Philippine theater arts, opera and ballet. Each statements are given with indicators:
STRONGLY AGREESOMEWHAT AGREESTRONGLY DISAGREESOMEWHAT DISAGREE
The third part will be the open ended questions where in the gathered data will be coming from the perspectives and opinions from the respondents. The survey will be in a form of Likert scale which is used to measure the level of the respondents from strongly agreeing to strongly disagreeing.
1.Demographic Profile – The profiles included in this part of the research will be the respondents’ sex, age and strand in determining the level of perception in Philippine theater arts, opera and ballet.
2.Level of knowledge and appreciation on Philippine opera and ballet- A questionnaire was created in this part of the research for the utilization of the study that composes of questions about the level of perception on Philippine theater arts, opera and ballet.
3.Open-ended question – In this section of the research instrument, this will be used to gather direct experiential accounts from the respondents specifically their appreciation, familiarity and knowledge on Philippine theater arts, opera and ballet.
Item ClusterCronbach’s AlphaNo. of Items
A.Level of knowledge and appreciation on Philippine opera and ballet
1.Familiarity and Knowledge.80510
Overall Results for the level of perception on Philippine theater arts, opera and ballet .83517
Table 1. Reliability Coefficients per Cluster
Data Gathering Procedure
The following were the data gathering procedural steps made by the researchers:
Figure 2. Data Gathering Procedure
(a)The research will start with the formulation or crafting of specific problems on their chosen topic. They will be starting to collect the important data, the back ground and the problematic areas of the research topic.
(b)The researchers will formulate a questionnaire they can use in gathering the data needed with the supervision of their research teacher. The result of the questionnaire could help the researchers in giving evidences to justify their topic and use the responses as their basis of their research.
(c)With the approval signature of the research teacher and a written letter to the respondents, the distribution for the pilot testing survey forms will begin. There will be twenty (20) respondents in the said distribution. The respondents will be coming from the strands sections of grade eleven (11) General Academic Strand (GAS) A and B and from Humanities and social sciences (HUMSS) A and C.
(d)After answering the given questionnaire to the respondents, it shall be collected the same day it was distributed as part of the data gathering. It will serve as the reliability source of data of the research.
(e)The gathered data by the respondents will be analyzed so that the researchers will be able to describe the level of perception on Philippine theater arts, opera and ballet of the senior high school students.
(f)The last process will be the final out put which is the level of perception on Philippine theater arts, opera and ballet.
In treating the culled data, the researchers will make use of the following techniques and tools:
?In determining the level of perception on Philippine theater arts, opera and ballet of the Senior High School students, the computations of means, media and standard deviation will be used. There will be a qualitative descriptions that will be used as the indicators the following are:
(4) strongly agree (3) somewhat agree (2) strongly disagree (1)somewhat disagree
?The tools that will be used in testing the significant correlation and difference when compared between and across is either the parametric or non-parametric.
?The significance level will be set at 0.5.
?The data will be grouped by themes, illustrated and analyzed using the inductive reasoning technique of writing in treating the gathered data on the problems encountered through qualitative means.