As the textbook explains

As the textbook explains, nationalism arose due to different communities finding unity in wanting change. For example, many of these people had several aspects in common, such as institutions, traditions, languages and customs. These communities were called nations, (Duiker, pg. 556). Nationalism first developed during the French Revolution and continued to grow during the second great revolution. In France, the people who hungered change amongst their government brought about several revolutions.

The revolts in France inspired others in Europe to revolt. In 1848, the people of France opposed the Monarchy due to the depression in agriculture and industrialization. Among the nations that led revolts in order to become free from the empires reigning them, Italy was one. Vienna established nine states in Italy, these include the kingdom of Sardinia, the kingdom of Two Sicilies, the Papal States, the small duchies and the northern provinces of Lombardy and Venetia, (Duiker, pg. 558).

Italy was under the reign of the Austrian Empire, however hungered for their freedom. A movement known as Young Italy led several revolts in 1848, (Duiker, pg. 559). However, within a year the Austrian Empire took control over the states once again and diminished their revolt. Many of the revolutions that were occurring developed liberal governments. However, due to their unorganized plans, the revolutions were not successful, (Duiker, pg. 559).

After several trials and errors, Italy finally unified and became a nation. The Austrian Empire was still in control of Italy in 1850, (Duiker, pg. 560). Because of the failure of the revolution in 1848- 1849, the people looked upon the North for leadership. It was not until King Victor Emmanuel II named Count Camillo di Cavour that helped lead Italy. Cavour, as prime minister, supported economic expansion that increased government revenues, which enabled Piedmont to develop a large army. However, he knew that their army would not withstand the Austrian Empire’s army, so he developed an alliance with the French leader Napoleon III. This lead the empire to invade the country in 1859, (Duiker, pg. 560). While the North was fighting the Austrian Empire, South Italy raised an army of 1000 volunteers called the Red Shirts. They marched across the Italian Peninsula.

In March 17, 19861, Italy was proclaimed to be ruled under King Victor Emmanuel II under a centralized government. And in 1870, in the Franco-Prussian War, the French troops withdrew from Rome, which them became the capital of the United Italian State, (Duiker, pg. 561).