ABSTRACT Textiles is one of the leading industries found globally as this is the basic need of human next to food

ABSTRACT
Textiles is one of the leading industries found globally as this is the basic need of human next to food. Textile Industry plays a major role in developing country’s economy in by offering international trade. With the passage of time, competition in Textile sector is increasing rapidly that keeps financial returns under pressure due to which competitive issues are noticeable. My dissertation addresses the relevant ethical procedures that must be followed during the manufacturing and supply chain to make the market sustainable. Since utility of natural and chemical fibers to end-user goods is involved in Textiles, it has the higher chances of cracking the environment which must be taken care to make the manufacturing processed friendly and less harmful for both labor and the industry.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to extend my gratitude to Ma’am Sana Naqvi, our supervisor for her productive ideas, endless support and guidance throughout the route in making this dissertation a success. I’m also thankful to my class mates for supporting and sharing ideas that helped me grow in good writing and expressing what I had in my mind. I would like to thank all those people including teachers and friends who sorted out my confusions in one way or other throughout my thesis and believed in my work. In the end, I would love to express thanks to my major support system; my parents who stayed by my side, always offering financial and motivational support always to make the things possible in the way I desired.

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Plagiarism Disclaimer
I hereby declare that this dissertation is my own and autonomous work. All sources and aids used have been indicated at the end of report. All texts either quoted directly or paraphrased have been indicated by in-text citations. Full bibliographic details are given in the reference list which also contains internet sources containing URL and access date. This work has not been submitted to any other examination authority as yet.

A major question is whether and how other countries can replicate the East Asian model of upgrading?
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………………

Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………………………….

Disclaimer……………………………………………………………………….

Chapter1: Defining Ethics……………………………………………………….5
-General Meaning………………………………………………………5
-Ethics referring to Textiles……………………………………………5
-Worldwide importance of Textiles……………………………………6
Chapter 2: Manufacturing……………………………………………………….

-Processes involved
-Ethical tools followed
Chapter 3: Working Conditions
-Technology hijacks
-Industrial Impact on Labor
-Provision of Equipment
Chapter 4: Exploitation ……………………………………………………..

Chapter 5: Fair trade…………………………………………………………
Chapter 6: Sustainable production…………………………………………..

-Virtual Reality check
-Road to Sustainability of the Industries
Opportunities
Barriers
Chapter 7: Animal Welfare………………………………………………….

Chapter 8: International Standards…………………………………………..

Chapter 9: National Industries……………………………………………….

-In house production
Feroze 1888
Star Textile Mills Ltd
Al-karam
ETHICS FOR TEXTILE DESIGNERS
CHAPTER ONE: WHY ETHICS ARE IMPORTANT?
GENERAL MEANING OF ETHICS
The basic concepts and fundamental principles of decent human conduct. It includes study of universal values such as the essential equality of all men and women, human or natural rights, obedience to the law of land, concern for health and safety and, increasingly, also for the natural environment.

DEFINITION OF ETHICS REFERRING TO TEXTILE DESIGNERS
Any markets runs through the complex chains of resource depletion, production, wastage, supplying, workers’ rights and sustainability along with strong campaigns to keep getting fairer. Likewise, Textile Sector runs by following the same chain but also needs to follow the factors like production of cotton, factory safety, catering the right audience and also the designers or companies depending who design.
WHAT IS DESIGN AND WHY ETHICS IMPLEMNTATION IS IMPORTANT?
Delivery of expression through various mediums, either to satisfy a customer by coming up with sustainable collection or to present an innovation to the world composes a DESIGN. Crafts, artisanship are the qualities that build up fundamental values of the designed piece. Just like the philosophy, law or business, design also commands for some ethics to be implied to get identified all over. By following ethics, designers achieve this special power to change the perception of minds by becoming a source of consumerism. Not always the communication is done through words, but designers know to express through their skills and art and that’s how they get enabled to influence the audience being catered. The industry makes sure to take the account of sustainability to develop and flourish economy in all aspects.
IMPORTANCE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY:
The textile industry is the world’s oldest branch of consumer goods manufacturing. It is a diverse and heterogeneous sector which covers the entire production chain of transforming natural and chemical fibers (such as cotton, wool, and oil) into end-user goods, including garments, household goods, and also industrial textiles. Textiles are heavily intertwined with environmental, social and governance issues. In the past, efforts of producers and retailers have primarily focused on improving the social aspects of textiles e.g. establishing fair working conditions, setting social standards, establishing minimum wages, ensuring occupational safety, imposing a ban on child and forced labor, etc.

CHAPTER TWO: ETHICAL TOOLS INVOLVED IN MANUFACURING PROCESSES OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY
Textile industry involves the following processes during manufacture of the fabric:

Economic organizations have an important stock of information which they make available to enterprises from where data gets collected in different ways through the publication of studies and reviews, exchanges between organizations, research, etc. In our hyper-globalized world, the lines of what is ethical and what is not are becoming increasingly blurred, if not disappearing altogether. Cultural conditions, social factors, and, more increasingly, the political climates are dramatically shifting the status quo of what is deemed ethical and what has simply become quite normalized.
2.1: ETHICAL TOOLS CONSIDERED DURING MANUFACTURING:
In the past, textile manufacturers paid little attention to the impact and harms on environment because the scale of production was not that massive as it is now. Following tools must be kept in consideration during the manufacture to maintain the environment and rights of the concerns involved:
Effluent waste water drainage:
Using cleaner production can be one of the key issues that can lead to less pollutants as well as promote recirculation of the treated water in the dyeing system. Cleaner production of dyeing waste water requires the whole system design to go through a revision of the dying process and water usage in each steps. The best strategy goes for limited, reduced and controlled water flows in each step.
Review of the whole dyeing process design and possibility of minimizing inputs In possible cases, combined treatment can be applied Choosing the appropriate treatment process for effluent Find out the possibility of treatment of waste water immediately after each stage and re-circulate it
Reducing health risk to workers:
The health hazard poses higher risk to those people who handle the dyeing process within the factory. They can be effected directly or indirectly. The toxicity comes mainly from the chemical components used for dying process. The health hazard poses higher risk to those people who handle the dyeing process within the factory. They can be effected directly or indirectly. The toxicity comes mainly from the chemical components used for dying process. The treatments must be given off to the workers so that their health risk factor reduces and production rate remains active for the industry.

Towards Sustainability:
If the three spheres of Sustainability is considered in Textiles, there are many issues that are lacking. Among environment, social and economic perspective of Bangladesh garment industries only the economic conditions may have reasonable and good achievement. In that case the benefit of profit growth directly goes to the owners.

Monitoring Systems:
At present, automation is one major key to quality improvement and cost competitiveness most textile sectors of individual machines and their processes. Now, every manufacturer wants to make completely automatic machinery that takes in raw material on its one end and delivers finished product from the other end.The main objectives of Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) are first to provide accessible information for every sector of a plant for the efficient operation of industries. CIM controls fiber preparation, opening, blending, carding and auto leveling in drawing. Quality control in carding and drawing can perform spectral analysis and determine the cause of problems based on the frequency analysis of the defects.
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Embroidery carried out by the machines through digital image
2847975318135
Weaving done by machines, warp and weft threads are clearly controlled through machines.

CHAPTER 3: WORKING CONDITIONS
Production of the industry depends upon the environment and conditions provided to labor alongside their well-off wages. Impact of the industry must not disturb the harmony of the nature even though resources utility is important in production, to be specific in Textiles due to cotton growth and production. Farmers need sufficient
3.1: INDUSTRIAL IMPACT ON LABOR
03175The social aspect of garment industry is in the worst condition. The living standard of the workers are lower as they receive insufficient wage. Gender equality for a salary and job position is not maintained properly. Although the child labor was prohibited in garment industries and reduced dramatically after the Harkin Bill of United States in 1992, still there are many children working in small informal industries. Most of them are 12 to 15 years old girls coming from village areas. There is no framework of workers’ community grown up. The workers live in most of the slum areas and are socially considered as lower class people due to less education and wealth. The socio-environmental condition includes health and safety issues of the workers, which is the worst of the world. There are several hazards appeared including fire accidents, building collapses etc. Every year many workers lose their lives and get injured due to the hazards. The safety levels in many factories are still very poor. None of the factory authorities consider the health issues of the workers. Unfavorable working conditions often make them sick. Crisis management is also bad.

3.2: TECHNOLOGY HIAJCKS:
Research agencies have figured out that technology hijacks people’s minds and they don’t realize the indulging power of illusion within. Questions surrounding the benefit of businesses, software designers, and users are all important factors in the continuing development of concept of ethical persuasion and ethical design. And, while any given solution may never be perfect, the most ideal solution may hold the answer to giving technology companies some kind of moral responsibility in their current or future designs — especially as it pertains to users’ behavior.

CHAPTER NO.4: EXPLOITATION
Industries around the world are majorly involved in going against the fair policies to support labor and employees. Textile industries are following the same trend of disrespecting labor rights in the name of fashion which is sad to witness especially in Asian countries even though production is quite greater within these states.
4.1:HOW ARE THE RIGHTS EXPLOITED?
Following are the ways in which labor rights get exploited and eventually turn the condition into unusual one:
Sweatshops:
Mostly, labor has to perform their duties under “sweatshop” conditions. After working for long hours every day, sometimes without even a weekly rest day, and even not paid for overtime. Many of them do not possess a regular contract. In the past following years, wages for garment workers in the majority of Asian countries have decreased in noticeable terms, except in China. The distance between prevailing wages – the wages paid in general to an ordinary worker – and living wages for garment workers in Asian countries has major contradiction.
Unsafe work:
279082552387500Harmful conditions and insufficient facilities represent a common feature of many factories in Textile sector. The instant expansion of the industry has led to the adaptation of many buildings, built for other purposes – residential, for instance – into factories, often without the required permits. Other plants have had extra floors added or have increased the workforce and machinery to levels beyond the safe capacity of the building. Due to lower protective equipment, old and expired wiring at risk of short circuit (a major reason behind fires), and insufficient or outdated fire extinguishing facilities are often reported in these populated workplaces. Fire exits are mostly unexpectedly blocked by factory owners, and windows even barred, thus increasing the risk of deaths in accidents.

Forced child labor:
282321014922500Many industries are hiring children who are working in such difficult environment at earlier age rather than getting education. Their poverty is not permitting them to get educated, hence are acquired to earn due to parents’ pressure. Child labor is strictly prohibited by law in most countries but continues to be rife in some of the poorest countries of the world. Child labor is a main issue for fashion because much of the supply chain requires low-skilled labor and some tasks are even better suited to children than adults. In cotton picking, employers prefer to hire children for their small fingers, which do not damage the crop.

Consequences of accidents:
Due to lack of regular contracts refers that many workers who get wounded in factory fires accidents, and the relatives of those who expire, do not get any compensation, because they are not registered as formal employees of the companies and the management therefore do not recognize them as their own workers.

4.2: IDEAS FOR IMPROVEMENT:
In order to fluctuate the trends in textile and clothing workers’ conditions in some Asian countries, a number of suggestions have been given, to be taken at different levels of responsibility, and also as possibly structuring and making more consistent the various perceptions, and even incorporating enterprise-led actions in this background.
National authorities
Union rights are one of the main issues. Registering a trade union could make things easier. Public authorities should guarantee the implementation of union rights, including the protection of union leaders from persecution. Moreover, they could guarantee safety for workers’ internationally identified rights of freedom of association and collective bargaining, by ratifying and implementing ILO conventions on freedom of association. Consistent work should be the norm and not the exception. This not only beautifies workers’ rights, but for instance, in case of emergencies and accidents, entitles victims and their families to compensation. This applies more checks by public authorities on safety and social rights achievement. Suitable systems of labor inspection should be set up, and be supplied by adequate numbers of properly trained inspectors.

287655023177500AVAILABILITY OF EQUIPMENTS:
This is the basic need of every industry to have fire extinguishers and other emergency exits installed so that in any case of emergency, workers’ health is not risked and get safe by escaping on the right time. Many fire accidents which occurred in last few years locally are unable to forget due to the damage it caused to humanity by adding sad demise to the families of those workers who lost their lives.

International brands and retailers
International brands should offer suitable and corporate human-rights, also due-diligence procedures when dealing with contractors in developing countries. The chance of updating the mainstreaming concept of auditing has been suggested. Audits must represent a full calculation of the situation, rather than a simple checklist. This implies a possibility of change from typical, social compliance auditing to a process of cooperation between brand and supplier, in which all issues are disclosed in a transparent manner. Not only safety, but employers’ health too – paying particular attention to the female dimension of the problem – could be included in such audits. The significance of more stable relations between international brands and contractors has been dominated. Brands should avoid the practice of “forum shopping”: changing suppliers often to force down prices and shorten delivery times. This increases pressure on contractors and apparently on workers. Contractors are pushed to hire nonregistered workers in order to meet peaks in orders, while being able to dismiss them without any reason. Brands could adopt purchasing practices which stimulate the upgrading of factory buildings to safety standards.

A EUROPEAN POSTER ASKING FOR NECESSITIES OF A WORKER
CHAPTER NO. 5: FAIR TRADE
WHY WAS FAIRTRADE DEMANDED?
Make this world a better place is a joined responsibility by being ethical from all aspects. To introduce the ethical ranks, textile industries are made to follow a code of conduct, made with collaboration of related companies and employers in the developing countries to make the production going without harming the system management and surroundings. The code of conduct includes the right production, ethical policies for labor and trading of products around. Fair Trade approaches in the best manner to improve the lives of farmers and workers working in the fields and industries respectively. Not only this, it also aims to look after the environmental conditions to make it more sustainable.
FAIR TRADE ISSUES
RIGHT LABELLING OF THE PRODUCTS:
341947552514500Developing countries are in general skeptical towards certification and labeling programs initiated in the North. Developing countries are afraid such schemes may negatively affect their exports. For example, a number of products exported by developing countries (including textiles and clothing items), are produced in the informal sector where completion of on-site plant inspection is impractical. Moreover, most certification and labeling schemes have failed to involve representatives of developing countries in the process of writing eco-criteria. Second, many observers from the South question the environmental legitimacy of the arguments used. They argue that the schemes are made with the consumer in mind but do not take into account the views and positions of the stakeholders in the exporting countries. Third, they argue that such practices are a new form of protectionism indulged in by Northern countries to protect their market from the much cheaper products from the South. Finally, they are afraid that the developing countries will be forced to buy modem technologies from the North. One of the industries that are sure winners in the certification and labeling game are, no doubt, the (Northern) certification industry itself. There is another aspect of certification and labeling that warrants attention from a developing country perspective. It is no surprise that the sustainability labeling initiatives in the jeans industry are predominantly taken in the designer or upper segment of the market.

REASONS TO GO AGAINST CERTIFIED LABELING:
There are two principal reasons for this. In the first place, there is the obvious reason that the rents that are earned in this upper segment of the market make it relatively easy to pay for environmental and social improvements in production. In the second place, and this is most relevant to the argument we are developing here, the production chains of mass-market and designer jeans show important differences in the level of vertical integration and control. For high-fashion companies it is of extreme importance to respond fast to changing fashion trends. The Spanish clothing chain Zara, has therefore embraced a fully vertically integrated business model, where products are developed in a design-and-manufacturing center in La Corufila, with most of the sewing carried out by around four hundred local subcontractors.

CHAPTER 6: SUSTAINABLE PRODCUTION:
VIRTUAL REALITY CHECK:
The chain may include retailers, middlemen, manufacturers, contractors and subcontractors that can stretch from continent to continent including hundreds, if not thousands, of individuals and companies in more formal or informal settings. In such circumstances, it is extremely difficult for any company to set up a waterproof certification system. Given the high visibility of the textile sector in consumer countries and the frequent media attention for abuses in this industry, it seems necessary that the certification system that would guarantee the claims made by a label would be very reliable and indisputable. This requires a level of oversight and control over the entire chain that is not present at the moment. Another obstacle may be the simple fact that the textile industry is dominated by big brands, and that competition is based on the image of trends that these brands try to transmit to the consumer. Companies invest heavily in marketing brand names, and it is considered unlikely by the industry that any label, unconnected to the brand, would have any additional marketing value. Indeed, it is doubted by the industry whether there would be much demand for textiles with an explicit social or environmental image.
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A loop defining the cycle of sustainable production in Textiles involving the role of production and transport also.
OPPORTUNITIES AND BARRIERS IN FOLLOWING SUSTAINABILITY
Currently, it is the producers and retailers who are mostly driving the improvements in sustainability of textiles and are also working at raising consumer awareness. There is growing attention towards not only social, but also environmental impacts of textiles; especially for specific kind of products such as KIDS’ wear, demand for more environmentally friendlier textiles is continuously increasing. Permanent and quick changes in fashion can be an opportunity for rapid uptake of sustainable garments, but also a barrier since such trends could quickly be replaced by something else. In other areas like interior or underwear innovation cycles are much slower.
Opportunities
By improving their environmental and social performances, brands can improve their reputation
Linking business to social and environmental projects enables companies to build a strong connection with consumers by involving them in sustainability initiatives
Technological innovation in production processes, along the supply chain which contribute to improve the environmental footprint of processes and which may save costs, enabling the use of more recycled materials i.e. end of life polyester can be recycled into new clothes
There are already well established environmental labels that producers can apply for to prove their superior environmental image
Barriers
Complex and global value chains often with low traceability represent an obstacle for producers and brands who want to improve their production patterns
Socially and environmentally friendlier textiles might result in more expensive finished products
The perception of some consumers that sustainable garments are not stylish or fashionable, and that the design and the appearance of eco-clothing is unfashionable and unattractive.

CHAPTER 7: ANIMAL WELFARE
Taking good care of animals is essential in clothing and textile industries around the world need to be committed to continue this value chain. Animals must not be deprived in the name of fashion since these species are also significant to be lived. Companies must not overlook the welfare of animals, and many like H;M Groups has worked on this campaign to not only make the consumers secure but also make it effective within the textile sector.
This poster of H;M Group says it all:

7.1: HOW ARE ANIMALS FALLING IN DANGER?
Large amount of water and chemicals such as pesticides are used in the production of fibers like cotton, while waste water discharges containing toxic chemicals can enter public waterways and appear as fatal for fish. Cruelty to animals in the wool developing countries of the world is a very dangerous crime. Tolerance in the wool trade of anyone suspected of abuse is, and always has been, zero.

Facts about fur farming:
Much like leather and fur, wool is an incredibly sought-after textile. Because of this, there is an incredibly strong market for the fleece and skin of sheep. As a result, these animals “are treated as nothing more than wool-producing machines,” (18) and shearers are not shamed for generating those machines. Shearers, although they do not kill their victims as do furriers or leather manufactures, are not shy from being equally as evil. Profit is, of course, their top priority; one that far surpasses the concern for their wool-bearing animals’ welfare
Cruelty with the wool producing animals:
Much like leather and fur, wool is an incredibly sought-after textile. Because of this, there is an incredibly strong market for the fleece and skin of sheep. As a result, these animals “are treated as nothing more than wool-producing machines,” and shearers are not shamed for generating those machines. Shearers, although they do not kill their victims as do furriers or leather manufactures, are not shy from being equally as evil. Profit is, of course, their top priority; one that far surpasses the concern for their wool-bearing animals’ welfare. Each wool growing country has its own legally binding animal welfare legislation. Best practice is defined within each country based on country-specific production systems and the wool sheep breeds of each country as well as universal principles of ethical wool production. Wool growers are dedicated to the job of looking after their animals and keeping them healthy, to ensure the wool maintains the right qualities for the textile industry.
7.2: What should be done:
The decision to develop socially responsible standards in terms of animal rights is ultimately a choice to be made by each individual corporation.
While it may be unrealistic to imagine a fashion industry free of fur, leather, wool and silk entirely, it is realistic to encourage the development of an industry with higher standards for the ethical treatment of the animals who provide for it.
Aside from developing higher standards, it is also necessary to develop a means of ensuring that these standards are upheld. In many instances, companies claiming to be cruelty-free have deceived consumers through mislabeling; many have gone a step further, reverting to their fur, leather, wool, or silk use despite vowing to do otherwise. In terms of Corporate Social Responsibility, it is time to level the playing field, for to solve the issue of animal rights it is necessary to accept the philosophical view that considers animals to have rights similar to or the same as human beings
In a different sense, animals can be both friend and faux – and with this, animal rights and the fashion industry can co-exist in an ethical, compassionate, exclusive, and luxurious way.

CHAPTER NO. 8: INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
In this chapter, each code of the chosen international enterprises is first of all presented, with analysis of its main components. An attempt has been done to group together, wherever possible, the different elements through keywords to discuss the comparison of companies in ethical standards. This is followed by a comparative analysis of the codes on the basis of two major aspects: explicit or implicit references to fundamental ILO standards concerning human rights at work; and the methods of application.

Companies have set up different set of rules to be followed, thus maintaining the sustainable production without harming the environment, without being unfair to labor and careful with the animals.

LEVI STRAUSS:
Levi Strauss Associates is the world’s leading apparel manufacturer, producing and marketing clothes for men, women and children. In 1995 the group’s turnover was 6.7 thousand million dollars, with net profits of 734 million dollars. During its 142 years of existence, the enterprise used external financing sources only between 1971 and 1995. Thanks to a progressive repurchasing by the majority shareholder of shares offered to the public on the stock exchange in 1996, Levi Strauss has once again become what it was at the beginning, namely a company held by a single family. Its owner and Chief Executive Officer, Bob Hass, has developed over the years a strategy of expansion in which industrial ethics have played a major role. The Levi Strauss code of ethics consists of two sets of guidelines. The first, the Business Partners Terms of Engagement, deals with subjects over which the enterprise’s trade partners can exercise direct control. These include in particular general ethical standards, legal requirements, environmental requirements, and above all, labour standards. The concept of “business partners” includes contractors and subcontractors who manufacture or finish the company’s products and suppliers who provide material used in these products.

This section discusses social aspects of the textile and clothing industry, which includes the following aspects: • wages; • labour standards; • gender; and • poverty reduction strategies.

Synoptic table of ethical code of Levi Strauss is given below:
Rights discussed Involvement proceedings Country guidelines Attitude of the company towards ethics
Child Labor Use of child labor is not permissible (child = less than 14 years of age or below the compulsory school age). Levi Strauss encourages the development of workplace apprenticeship programs for the educational benefit of young people “Aspiration statement”. Employees should all have the opportunity to contribute, learn, grow and advance based on merit. The management of the enterprise must be guided by the following principles: — team work and trust; — diversity of the workforce as regards origin and political belief; — recognition of merits; — ethical management practices;
Working Conditions Working hours in accordance with local standards. Maximum: 60 hours a week. One day of compulsory rest. Wages and social benefits in accordance with laws in force or prevailing wage practice in enterprises in the region. Ethical principles which employees must follow: — honesty; — keeping their promises; — fairness; — respect of others; — solidarity; — integrity
Health ; Safety Business partners provide good health and safety conditions, including in residential facilities when provided by the enterprise. Employees and representatives of Levi Strauss must not be exposed to a working environment which jeopardizes their health or safety. Responsibilities of a global enterprise Preference given to business partners who share Levi Strauss’s commitment to contribute to the betterment of community conditions (Community betterment) Protecting the global brand image of Levi Strauss. Mission Statement: Levi Strauss’s mission is to sustain responsible commercial success as a global marketing company, i.e. to conduct business ethically and to provide a safe and productive working environment.

In any business, ethical management practice is important to sustain the environment while maintaining the production sidewise. Similarly, Levi Strauss aims to learn business without harming the child rights. Also, focuses on the health and working conditions of their labor without showing any sort of discrimination.

REEBOK:
In 1988, Nike outdistanced its main competitor, Reebok, another United States company developed by Paul Fireman who, in 1988, bought a small United Kingdom footwear company called Reebok. Reebok has therefore set up model factories which must respect very strict conditions, in particular as regards child labour. The firm has also established a Reebok prize which is awarded each year to individuals or associations working for the promotion of human rights. The basic principles defining the ethical strategy of these two enterprises are set forth below.

KEYWORDS COMMITMENT TO HUMAN RIGHTS
Basic Principles Reebok attaches considerable importance to the standards of its business partners as regards human rights. The respect of these rights is one of Reebok’s characteristics
Desired Result Improvement of the morale and performance of its employees and, by extension, increased productivity
Ethical Goal Implementation of the principles concerning human rights which are just, adapted to different cultures and encourage employees to be proud of their work.

Child Labor Prohibited. Definition of the term “child”: — less than 14 years of age; — younger than the age of compulsory education fixed at the national level; — in accordance with national legislation defining the term “child” for persons over the age of 14.

Working Hours Maximum: 60 hrs a week on a regular basis
Overview on the Ethics of International Textile Industries:
The participation in global networks and global value chains can help industrial upgrading and improved economic performance. Industrial upgrading in the clothing industry is primarily associated with a shift from assembly to full package production, which changes the relationship between buyer and supplier in a direction that gives far more autonomy and learning potential for industrial upgrading to the producer. It is about ethical production which supports and values workers, rights, and the sourcing of fair trade materials.

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Hence it can be said, Sustainability of any industry depends on all these factors defined in the diagram
CHAPTER NO.9: NATIONAL TEXTILE INDUSTRIES TOWARDS ETHICS
Less dependent countries such as Pakistan focus on increasing exports as a means to reduce poverty in the region without specific mention of the T&C industries, thus indicating that diversification has already taken place. Sustaining export performance is a key priority, the government is making a concerted effort to diversify and is extending the policy and export strategy.
As examples, the export strategy focuses on the following areas:
reducing the cost of doing business
increasing market access
technology and skills upgrading
regions specific strategy
Export oriented foreign investment.

The cargo subsidy for product diversification and geographic expansion is also set to continue.
Following are the few known textile companies of Pakistan and also the major exporters of Textiles products. Their ethics, kept under consideration during the production for the safety of environment and humanity are profoundly defined below:
FEROZE 1888:
Feroze1888 fully accepts its responsibilities towards Health and Safety. Believing in concept that sustainable success can be accomplished only through people. No other asset in the company is as essential as the people that contribute with their work to our culture and our business results. When it comes to occupational safety, Feroze1888’s goal is to reduce the occurrence of repetitive workplace accidents to the lowest possible level. They are preventing injuries and ill health to personnel affected by our activities through a proactive system of Risk Management. Company is also more concerned with recognizing, identifying and eliminating risks with the proper use of engineering and administrative controls i.e. load testing of lifting equipment, provision of PPEs (Personal Protective Tools) and MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet), Safety conscious machines with the latest high end technologies and so on.

Ethics followed by Feroze1888:
Green Company:
Ensuring that our company operates in an environmental-friendly way, the Environmental Management System is certified by SGS for compliance with ISO 14001 requirements.

We make every effort to Reduce, Reuse and Recycle waste (3R), minimize natural resource consumption ; treat any harmful emissions before they are released to minimize environmental footprint.

42767258318500A drop of water matters!
At Feroze1888, we believe that a drop of water we save today will save our future and with this thought we continue to strive for the opportunities in our operations that will significantly reduce the water consumption. We are achieving this goal by using state-of-art machinery as well as by adopting proper water management system. The decreasing trend of water consumption in all major areas is showing our efforts towards this objective.

Solid Waste:
right12065We have a comprehensive system for reduction, collection, segregation, reuse and disposal of our solid waste. Most of waste generated is reused, recycled or sold for recycling. Some of our waste is hazardous in nature (such as waste water treatment sludge), any such waste is handed to CDGK (Local Municipality) approved waste disposal contractor for hazardous waste.

Gaseous emission:
36195005080Our processes are energy intensive and electricity ; steam are two major elements. We have CHP systems at all our locations that deliver Heat, Power and Cooling at maximum efficiency. Air emissions are checked at regular interval for suitability to be released to environment.
A continuous work out feasibility of new technologies for Energy Efficiency ; Sustainability is carried and apply them as soon as they are workable. Throughout plant we have waste heat recovery systems, energy efficiency replacements, VFD controls, and monitoring systems to ensure performance. Various trainings related to Sustainability ; Energy Efficiency are conducted to promote awareness and to develop in-house capability to avail current opportunities and overcome future challenges.

Star Textile Mills Limited 
Star Textiles began production in 1952 producing finest quality polyester, cotton and blended yarn for domestic and international markets. It has installed capacity of 45000 spindle units, utilizing state of the art machinery imported from EU countries like Japan, China, Italy and Switzerland.

Ethics followed by Star Textile:
Certificates: The management of star Textile Mills Limited has taken ISO 9001:2000 as a first step towards Total Quality Management.

Sense of Duty towards Environment: The industry strictly believes that our planet is our home and we are doing our best efforts to make sure that our home remains clean and pollution free. At star Textile Mills, the management is well aware of this global hazard and has taken substantial initiatives for the preservation of the environment.

Sense of Duty towards Employees: Star Textile Mills Limited believes in admirable work environment. The management / staff relationship, which exists within star Textile Mills Limited, bears witness to this principle. Various social welfare schemes and programs like social security, provident fund, free services, easy loan and regular and performance bonuses facilities have been implemented for the benefit of the employees. Our employees are our biggest assets and we believe that by taking care of our employee we are ensuring a better future for our mills. 
Child Labour: The management is strictly against child labour and considers it as a menace to society. Every possible effort is made to discourage it and at the time of labour recruitment, it is made certain that the selected candidate is at least 18 years of age and willing to join star Textile Mills Limited.

ALKARAM TEXTILES:
Alkaram Textile Mills Pvt. Ltd. founded in 1986 as a vertically integrated composite textile mill, Alkaram is a household name when it comes to Fashion Fabrics. Alkaram Textile mills creates everything from shower curtains to apparel for men and women. Social compliance is a vital part of Alkaram’s business strategy. Alkaram complies with social compliance programs for various customers.
Alkaram’s policy of work:
Alkaram believes in fair practice. We follow our national laws in letter and spirit and also comply with social compliance code and conduct of Customers. Hence we shun forced labor force, bonded labor, child labor, discrimination and harassment. Realizing the need and importance of the Social and Security Compliance in manufacturing sector of Pakistan, an initiative guided by a multi-stakeholder (Public ; Private Sector) Board was formed back in 2004 called the Pakistan Compliance Initiative (PCI). Alkaram Textiles is a founder member of this compliance board. The basic idea of this initiative is to promote an industry-wide understanding of security, social and environmental standards, and provide Pakistan-specific compliance solutions acceptable worldwide.

Ethics followed by Alkaram:
Efficient treatment plant:
2400300335280Originally initiated by the Netherlands, “Cleaner Technology Program for Textile Industry” is a beneficial program for the backbone of Pakistan. It has enabled the textile wet processing industries of Pakistan to comply with national and international environmental standards and legislation. Utilized fully by Alkaram, it enables us to ensure that highest standards of quality and cleanliness are passed on to the community and environment. Our wet processing plant is fully compliant with the National Environment Quality Standards (NEQS) and we are proud to hold the Environment Management System (EMS) and Eco-label certification.

254317522288500Energy Conservation:
Alkaram understands the significance of monitoring the waste generated from its production process and the potentially hazardous effect it can have on the environment. The industry regularly samples and tests waste water to comply with national environmental quality standards. This is done side by side with monitoring and controlling air pollution at the source where plant is designed to comply with all discharge requirements. Alkaram has also been working on Better Management Practices Cotton Program (BMP). It entails going to the depth of the entire cotton process and educating farmers. It also utilizes efficiency principles in using less water, pesticides, fertilizers ; chemicals and better seeds during the cotton production.

Worker’s facilities:
After the provision of needed equipment around the house, employees of Alkaram are given all the basic health facilities and also high priority in exchange of ideas and information. Furthermore, there is no deduction of salary on late coming and also off leaves in the form of sick leave, annual leave and casual leave. Alkaram believes in the good health of workers has major role in the betterment of the productions, thus prospering the business.

BIBLIOPGRAPHY:
https://qz.com/793916/ethics-in-design-isnt-just-for-philosophers-designers-need-to-take-responsibility-too/www.businessdictionary.com/definition/ethics.htmlhttp://www.europarl.europa.eu/EPRS/140841REV1-Workers-conditions-in-the-textile-and-clothing-sector-just-an-Asian-affair-FINAL.pdfhttps://www.thecavalrygroup.com/Animal-Rights-vs-Animal-Welfarehttps://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/3361.pdfhttps://fashionwithaheart.wordpress.com/2012/05/06/friend-foe-or-frock-animal-rights-in-fashion/https://nsuworks.nova.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1504&context=ilsajournal/https://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1008&context=codeshttp://www.feroze1888.com/DisplayPage.aspx?id=90http://www.iwto.org/animal-welfareBOOKS REFRENCE:
Sustainability in the Textile and Fashion Industries: Animal Ethics and Welfare by Miguel Ángel Gardetti

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