Validity means that a research instrument measures that which it is supposed to measure. The main concern with validity is whether or not the findings from a research are truly about what they appear to be about (Saunders, 2009). To ensure validity for this study instruments the researcher pre-tested the instruments through the utilisation on a pilot study which was carried out at Esigodini Rural District Council (ERDC).
Reliability refers to the extent to which data collection techniques yield consistent findings, similar observation, or conclusions reached by other researchers or there is transparency in how sense was made from the raw data (Kothari, 2004). This was ensured by having an interviewer-administered questionnaire to guide the interview for departmental heads, deputy department heads, and bookkeeper and tax payer at MRDC. This ensured that respondents answered the same questions and in the same order with control by the researcher where potential misunderstanding of the questions were detected they were rectified during the interview process. In addition, a pilot study was used also to ensure reliability of instruments.
3.8 Pilot Study
A pilot study is a research study conducted before the intended study. Pilot studies are usually executed as planned for the intended study, but on a smaller scale (Collins, 2014). A pilot study cannot eliminate all systematic errors or unexpected problems but it eliminates most of the short comings of the questionnaire.
This was carried out in order to test the research process as the study tests how possible the design is in reality, to also test an intervention strategy and identify the components that are most important to the facilitation of the intervention (Payne, n.d.). Testing administration of an instruments and to develop or test the efficacy of research instruments and protocols. Are there confusing or misleading questions was the purpose of the pilot study.
Pilot study was carried out at Esigodini District Council because of the similarities to the MRDC in terms of size of the organization and nature of the organization as well as the way they operate.
3.10 Data presentation
The data collected was then presented in form of tables, pie charts, bar graphs .The main reason why these were utilized is that they clearly show related information in one platform and they show frequency at the same time as well as they allow for comparability (In, 2017).
3.11 Method of Analysis
The obtained data was analyzed though Statistic Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Data under SPSS can be analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics including frequency distribution tables, correlations, linear regression , pie charts and bar charts as these show clearly where there are comparisons and present data in a more clear way (IBM, 2015). This data analysis software is more advantageous as it is easy to use and eliminates human error in analysis
3.12 ethical considerations
Ethical considerations in research are critical (Mazur, 2007). Ethics are the norms or standards for conduct that distinguish between right and wrong. They help the researcher determine the difference between acceptable and unacceptable behaviors when collecting and analyzing data. The ethical standards considered help against the fabrication or falsifying of data and therefore, promote the pursuit of knowledge and truth which is the primary goal of research. These address issues to do with honesty, objectivity, respect for intellectual property, confidentiality and non-discrimination. The information collected were solely and purely for academic purposes and was treated in the strictest confidentiality possible and borrowed ideas will be referenced.
To ensure these, the researcher ensured the respondents that no names will be used for the research, also assured them of confidentiality and also explained to the respondents about the purpose of this research and informed the respondents that they were free to participate in the exercise and were free to exit if they do not want to continue.