3.3 How water management systems work
This part of the methodology aims to educate the reader on how the water management systems work and they will be integrated to the design of the future proposed development.
3.3.1 Rainwater Catchment systems
Rainwater Catchment is done by harvesting water that falls on the roof of a buildings and then stored up to 18 months for later consumption and for every 1 inch of rainfall on a 2 ft2 of the roof can be transformed into 1.25 gallons of potable water. The first few drops of rainwater is run to clean the debris off of the roof. The collection systems on the roof channels the water into the storage cistern through the gutter and pipes. The gutters are designed to be angled in order to avoid stagnant water. After running through pipes, the water is transferred to a the storage cistern, which is designed to prevent breeding of mosquitoes, contamination, growth of algae, and loss of evaporation. Once the water needs to be distributed, it will be channeled through a series of filters and ultraviolet lights for it to meet the potable water standards. After this, the water is ready for any domestic use, such as flushing, doing the laundry, bathing and showering. Rainwater is often naturally clean and is not in need of any water softening materials. However, like any other building utilities, it needs regular cleaning and maintenance in order to keep things sanitary and highly functional. CITATION Bui13 l 13321 (BuiltSmart Resources, 2013)3.3.2 Wastewater Treatment system
Opposed to rainwater, reclaimed water has high level of pathogens and sediments and usually needs water softening agents, hence it requires more steps and receives more treatments; but nonetheless, it is reusable. The wastewater treatment system often uses the simplest principles to remove any contaminants. The primary treatment it receives removes about half of the contaminants, through simple physical and mechanical processes like through bar screens and grit chambers. The secondary treatment is the removing of the remaining organic contaminants through biological processes such as aeration basins and final clarifiers. Lastly before it is reused, it will be filtered, disinfected, and dechlorinated to ensure the removal of any pathogens. CITATION San l 13321 (San Antonio Water System, n.d.)