2.2 Principle of direct torque control of induction motor:
the stator flux linkage (s?) or the rotor flux (r?) or the magnetizing flux (m?) and the electromagnetic torque by the selection of an optimal inverter voltage vector. The selection of the voltage vector of the voltage source inverter is made to restrict the flux and torque error within their respective flux and torque hysteresis bands and to get the fastest torque response and highest efficiency at every instant. Direct torque control enables both quick torque response in the transient operation and reduction of the harmonic losses and acoustic noise.
The Benefits of using DTC include the following:
1 No need for motor speed or position feedback in 95% of applications. Thus, installation of costly encoders or other feedback devices can be avoided.
2Direct torque control is available for different types of motor including permanent magnet and synchronous reluctance motors.
3Accurate torque and speed control down to low speeds, as well as full startup torque down to zero speed.
4 Excellent torque linearity.
5 High static and dynamic speed accuracy.
6 No preset switching frequency optimal transistor switching is determined
2.2.1 Voltage Source Inverter
A six step voltage source inverter provides the variable frequency alternating current voltage input to the induction motor in direct torque control method. The direct current supply to the inverter is provided either by a direct current source like a battery, or a rectifier supplied from a three phase or single phase alternating current source. Fig. 2.2 shows a six step voltage source inverter. The inductor L is inserted to limit short circuit through fault current. A large electrolytic capacitor C is inserted to stiffen the link voltage.
The switching devices in the voltage source inverter bridge must be capable of being turned OFF and ON. Insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) are used because they can offer high switching speed with enough power rating. Each IGBT has an inverse parallel-connected diode. This diode provide alternate path for the motor current after the IGBT, is turned off.

Figure 2.2 Voltage Source Inverter
Each leg of the inverter has two switches one connected to the high side (+) of the DC link and the other to the low side (-); only one of the two can be ON at any moment. When the high side gate signal is ON the phase is assigned the binary number 1, and assigned the binary number 0 when the low side gate signal is ON. Considering the combinations of status of phases a, b and c the inverter has eight switching modes(Va,Vb,Vc=000-111) V2 (000) are zero voltage vectors V0 (000) and V7 (111) where the motor terminals are short circuited and the others are nonzero voltage vectors V1 to V6
The six nonzero voltages space vectors will have the orientation, and also shows the possible dynamic locus of the stator flux, and its different variation depending on the VSI states chosen. The possible global locus is divided into six different sectors signaled by the discontinuous line. Each vector lies in the center of a sector of width named S1 to S6 according to the voltage vector it contains.
It can be seen that the inverter voltage directly force the stator flux, the required stator flux locus will be obtained by choosing the appropriate inverter switching state. Thus the stator flux linkage move in space in the direction of the stator voltage space vector at a speed that is proportional to the magnitude of the stator voltage space vector. By selecting one after another the appropriate stator voltage vector, is then possible to change the stator flux in the required method. If an increase of the torque is required then the torque is controlled by applying voltage vectors that advance the
same sector depending on the stator flux position.

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