1.Introduction and background of the study
There are number of various criteria, such as economic, social, cultural or environmental which can be used to assess poor development. Poor development can be defined as development that is not reaching the expect state in terms of improving the wellbeing of humans. Poor development is experienced particularly in rural areas in south Africa and also in other country as well. South African rural societies remain some of the most impoverished societies in the world, and access to employment, education, land, housing, health services and other essential resources still divide them from their urban neighbors.
Most rural communities live in severe poverty and there is little development activities taking place in these areas. According to Koch (1993) rural areas in South Africa have always remained poor, impoverished, undeveloped and less inhabited. These rural areas seem neglected and endure great poor development.
Mangaya village which is found in Thulamela municipality under Vhembe district of Limpopo province in south Africa it is characterized by poor development or as a poor developed rural area. This development contributed a lot to the poverty that take place in the village, as the development that occur it occurs in a low or inferior standard or quality of which people in the village found themselves being unable to access at least something to survive.
Furthermore due to the factors that contribute to poor development a great result of impact take place to the survival of people in Mangaya village. As development is of people by people for the people, people in mangaya village find them selves being unable to let development take place due to the factors that contributing to poor development. Those factors are the one which became the barrier for the development of Mangaya village. The study will give a light on the factors that contribute to poor development at Mangaya village in Thulamela municipality under Vhembe district of Limpopo province in south Africa.
2. Statement of the problem
Although most of the studies were done about poor development in rural areas most of them were in terms of rural development, and does not paid critical attention to factors that contribute to poor development in rural areas. Most of them addresses the symptoms rather than causes of continued poor development in the country’s rural areas.
Poor development is often a product of poor infrastructure that hinders development and mobility at Mangaya village. In mangaya there is a lack of sufficient roads that would increase access to agricultural inputs and markets. There is also a great lack of education and access to business. Due to lack of sufficient roads, this village had cut off from technological development and emerging markets in more urban areas. Poor infrastructure hinders communication, resulting in social isolation among the poor people of mangaya, many of whom have limited access to media and news outlets. Such isolation hinders integration with urban society and established markets, which could result in greater development and economic security to the village.
Moreover, there is also poor or nonexistent irrigation systems threaten agricultural yields because of uncertainty in the supply of water for crop production. Farmers in the village lack irrigation to store or pump water, resulting in fewer crops, fewer days of employment and less productivity. This result poor development in the village as those farmers, on the other hand are also employers for other people in the village. Both a lack of roads and insufficient irrigation systems result in greater work intensity in mangaya village and other many neighboring villages.
3. Area of the study
The study will be undertaken at Mangaya village in the Thulamela Municipality under Vhembe District of Limpopo Province in South Africa. Limpopo Province is divided into five districts, namely Mopani, Vhembe, Capricorn, Waterberg and Sekhukhune. Vhembe is found in the far northern side of South Africa, bordered by Zimbabwe and Mozambique.
4. The aims and objectives of the study
4.1. Aims of the study
To investigate the factors that contribute to poor development at Mangaya village in Thulamela municipality under Vhembe district of Limpopo province in south Africa.
4.2. Objectives of the study
To highlight to the municipality the extent of poor development at mangaya.
To promote the living standards of the people in mangaya.
To give Recommendation strategies that could reduce or eliminate the factors that contribute to poor development at mangaya village in Thulamela Municipality under Vhembe District of Limpopo, South Africa.
4.3. Research question
What are the factors that contribute to poor development at Mangaya?
How does those factors affect the development at Mangaya ?
What should be done to reduce or prevent those factors in the village.?
5. Significant of the study
The study will be significant to both the policy makers and citizens, as it will came up with the factors that contribute to the poor development in their village, including also come up with suggestions on how to reduce or prevent those factors that contribute to poor development at Mangaya. The municipality which is the one to be responsible in some factors, they may also get a clue on such factors including its effect to the village. It may also influence policy changer, to change behavior. The study will also be important in such a way that it will let the people at Mangaya village to have a clue on how their village is trapped to be development, including knowing much about those factors that contribute to poor development in their village.
6. Literature review
Poor development in south African’s rural areas is evenly distributed across the country, rather than strong in specific geographic areas. In some areas in the country, the condition is getting worse which is infertile, marginal to agriculture, environmentally damaged and densely populated ( Arhewe: 2014). Farmers, teachers and government officials with little or no training in relevant skill set rely heavily on families in urban areas for support and often times take up multiply part-time jobs in all forms of rural enterprises as a survival strategy. Finally vital input such as transportation facilities, electricity, water, access to business, education and infrastructures are lacking in rural areas because of inadequate government attention which lead that particular area to be a poor developed area.. Effective real demand and markets penetration remains very low due to the poor development that pervades the rural areas ( Olawepo: 2002 ).
A review of the literature shows that the problem of poor development is not a phenomenon that is unique to the Mangaya village, this is also experienced by other communities all over the globe. A literature search of the available texts, comprising a study of relevant books, journals, papers, legislation and other publications, will be undertaken to shed the light on the factors that contribute to poor development. At Mangaya village in the Thulamela Municipality under Vhembe District of Limpopo Province.
7. Theoretical framework
The study will belong to human development approach. According to Amartya Sen (1999) human development approach is about expanding the richness of human life, rather than simply the richness of the economy in which human beings live. It is an approach that is focused on people and their opportunities and choices. He argues that human development is about the expansion of citizens capabilities. The study will belong to human development approach because human development approach it covers all aspects of development, whether economic growth or international trade, budget deficits or fiscal policy, saving or investment or technology, rural development, basic social services or safety nets for the poor ( Sen: 1999).?
According to Amartya Sen (1999) the human development approach is concerned both with building up human capabilities (through investment in people) and with using those human capabilities fully (through an enabling framework for growth and employment).
8. Research design and methodology
To achieve the purpose of the study qualitative approach would be employed. Kumar (2005) explains that qualitative research can be employed when one is exploring new ways of looking at a more familiar topic. Therefore, the qualitative approach will allow the current researcher to produce data that is holistic, contextual, descriptive, in-depth and rich in detail.
The study will be a qualitative, which employed a phenomenological methodological approach for collection and analysis of data. The phenomenological approach is defined as a research method that attempts to understand participants’ construction of an experienced phenomenon or social reality (Bryman: 1992). It allows the researcher to understand how participants understand, interpret and experience a particular phenomenon by focusing on the participants views and perspectives of their everyday experiences (Verwy: 2003).
The qualitative research method will be the most appropriate research design for the study because it allows for the exploration of the subjective experiences of poor development in rural areas.
The study will conducted in order to gain insight on the factors that contribute to poor development at mangaya village in Thulamela municipality. In view of this, the qualitative research design will be used to elicit participants accounts of meaning, experience or perceptions by producing descriptive data in the participants own spoken words The use of qualitative research method will enable the researcher to interact with participants when gathering data so that the different perspectives could be captured accurately. This method will help the current researcher to select participants who are rich in information ( Fouche: 2005).
8.1. Sampling method
The study will make use of a simple random sampling method of which members of the sampled population will get equal opportunities of being sampled. 15 men and 15 women members of the village will be sampled to make a total of 30 members in the village being sampled and the purposive sampling method will be used of which specific respondents will also be sampled.
The current researcher will have a complete and up-to-date sample frame available, on the list, each population element has to be numbered sequentially such that each element can uniquely be identified. The drawing of the sample involves the generation of a predetermined number, the sample size of random numbers. The population elements corresponding to the numbers form the sample. Key informants as purposive sample such as, village councilor, municipal mayor, civic, leaders of youth organization, community leaders (such as leaders of various political organizations) will also be sampled as specified respondents.
8.2. Data Collection
Data will be collected using one-on-one interview. The interviews will be collected with the aid of an interview guide in the form of semi-structured, open-ended questions. The interview guide will serve as a map for the path that would be followed by the researcher when dealing with specific issues considered relevant to the field of the study (Green ; Nieman, 2003). All the interviews will be audio-taped with permission from the respondents. In cases where permission for tape-recording is not granted, extensive notes will be taken.
8.3. Data AnalysisData will be analysed qualitatively. During the interviews, field notes will be taken. Audio recording will also be made in order to capture detailed information from the respondents. Data will later be organized, described, classified and interpreted, as indicated by (Green ; Nieman, 2003) who reports that data should be organized, described, classified and interpreted before it can be analysed so that the researcher does not loose important information that could help in answering the research question. In the study the current researcher will make necessary preparation of the data, it will be captured in an indigenous language, which will need translation into English.
In order to analyze the data gathered for the study, the current researcher will identify categories and concepts that will emerge from the data, and link them into formal theories. Categories and themes will be generated from data, which will be organized so that similar concepts will be grouped together (Bogdan and Biklen: 2007) 84.Validity
To achieve content validity, all components of the intended construct to be measured must be included. The current research will use instruments to view participants before it was finally used to collect data. This process was possible through piloting the instruments and appropriately modifying the instruments to achieve the intended outcomes, which answered the research questions and objectives of the study projects. The current researcher will use instruments used to collect the data and data will be constructed in such a way that, data which are collected are valid data which are required in order to answer the research questions as closely as possible.
The current researcher will eliminate bias in the interview process by concentrating on the research questions and eliminating posing personal views in leading the respondents to the answers. The respondents will be consulted first by the current researcher to let them be prepared for the interviews, to establish credibility of the information. The respondents that are targeted will be closely managed to ensure that the data is not contaminated ( Bestewell: 2004)
9. Ethical consideration
The study will be guided by the following ethics, informed consent, and confidentiality, avoidance of harm and voluntary participation. The current researcher will constitutes a firm foundation by explaining the procedures to be followed and what the study is all about so that respondents can participate knowing what is expected from them.
9.1. Confidentiality: identity and privileged information of the participants will be protected. The current researcher will maintain confidentiality to ensure that the well-being of participants is protected. The information provided by participant’s particularly sensitive and personal information will be protected and made unavailable to anyone, except the researcher.
9.2. Informed consent: participants will be told enough about a piece of research to be able to make a decision about whether to participate in or not. The current researcher will inform the respondents about the way in which research will be conducted. The current researcher will apply informed consent to ensure that participants are aware of the advantages and disadvantages of participation in the study.
9.3. Avoidance of harm: respondents will be given assurance that they are indemnified against any emotional harm. The current researcher will make sure that the respondents are free from harm, including verbal and nonverbal harm.
8.4. Voluntary participation: participants will voluntarily participate themselves and will not be forced to participate. The current researcher will inform participants that they have the right to choose to be in the study and can withdraw from the study at any time during research. The current researcher won’t force respondents to participate in the research.
10. Provisional structure of the study
Chapter 1: Research proposal
Chapter 2: Literature review
Chapter 3: Data collection
Chapter 4: Data analysis
Chapter 5: Findings and Recommendations
Chapter 6: Conclusion