1. Introduction and Statement of the Problem
Delay in project are one of the major issues that regularly happen on construction projects in India and around the world. Thus, most of the project cannot operate as indicated in the agreement. The timeframe for the project will be longer than it ought to be. Because of late completion of the project, the number of activities and task are delayed. Delay will also impact the investors who invested in the projects
Due to delay in projects the owner and contractor pays the extra charges for completion of the project. When the completion time exceeds the actual completion time then it is called project delay. It is necessary to investigate and identify the delay factors and selecting the appropriate action to counter these delay factors by not compromising the quality.
The Most Common Reasons Construction Projects Are Delayed are
• Overbooked crew
• External factors
• Subcontractor schedules
• Poor Communication
When the construction projects are delayed it impacts directly the shareholders. The effect of construction delay are time overrun, cost overrun, disputes, Arbitration & litigation, and abandonment.
2. Review of Literature:
(Jyh-Bin Yang, 2009) uses “process based dynamic analysis methods which are dynamic analysis methods, namely the snapshot analysis method, the window analysis method and the isolated delay type method”.
The snapshot analysis method is based on the as-built, as-planned. “In this the total duration of the project is divided into snapshots or into a number of time period. When delay occurs the snapshots, dates can generally coincide with milestones of project. The delay value is calculated from each snapshot from the as-planned schedule and then it shows all the delayed values through analyzed snapshots”.
“The window analysis method follows the same idea, in this method the delay of entire schedule is analyses and dividing it into windows with a selected duration, mostly in month. The analyst looks at the activities within the selected window, updates the activities incorporating the delays within the selected window. Updating the selected window changes the as-planned schedule to an as-built schedule up to the end date of the selected window and becomes the basis for projecting the remaining activities from the end of the window to the completion of the project”.
The isolated delay type method is uses the process of SA method to overcome the drawbacks of SA and WA methods. For proper classification of types of delay and real-time CPM analysis, IDT is used.
(Nurul Huda Muhamad*, 2015) uses Collapsed as-built method. “In this actual as-built schedule is considered and the duration of all the excusable delays are taken out. This forms the collapsed as-built schedule. The new date is considered as completion date of the project had the contractor not been delayed”. The days between the collapsed as-built and the completion date from the as-built schedule are considers the days owed to the contractor”.
The methodology adopted for analyzing the delay of project is As -Planned vs As-Built.
The as-planned versus as-built schedule delay analysis is a method which compares the as-planned or baseline, construction schedule with the progress schedule at particular time or as-built schedule.
The as-planned versus as-built schedule analysis methodology compares the start and finish dates, durations, and relative sequences of the activities and determines the root causes which are contributing to delay.
4. Data Collection, Analysis, Results and conclusions
The data for delay analysis is collected by collecting the start date and finish date of all the activities according to schedule and entering data into the excel sheet. Now through the Gantt chart the activities are tracked like which activity is behind schedule or ahead of schedule with comparison to base line.
The analysis is done with the help of Gantt chart. In this the comparison is done between planned duration and actual duration of activity. If there is any difference in date, then it shows the particular activity is delayed and consequently delaying the project.
The project activities are of types critical and non-critical. The non-critical activities have float in which activity can be delayed without delaying the whole project. The critical activities have zero float which means each day delay will delay the whole project. The delay in shuttering and scaffolding of beams, slab, chazza and drop panel extends the duration of project.
The planned date for 1st floor roof was between 21st of May to 08th of June but the actual date of work done was between 02nd of June to 17th of June.
The results were the project was delayed by 12 days by comparing the planned and actual date of work done. The delay in shuttering and scaffolding of beams, slab, chazza and drop panel extends the duration of project.
At present, the second largest industry in India is construction industry. The objective of society is supported by construction industry. As the time is equal to money, the management of time is very important. The basic knowledge of delay can save money and time. The risk and investment are more in the industry because of the long duration and complexity of the project. The two basic things by which industries suffer more are cost overrun and time overrun.
The other problem in delay is that there is no predetermined how the analysis of delays should be done either in terms of choosing methodology or dealing with float. Unavailability of software can also influence the project schedule.
The delay analysis is done using As-Planned vs As-Built method. The main advantage of this method is that it is simple to understand, easy to use, simple and inexpensive